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UniBayanan Ma'aikatar Aikin Gonalture

Ofishin the Babbar Jagora

Washington D.C.

2025 0-1400

GAGARAURALCOUNSEL

Bari 28, 2019

MAGANAR

SAURARA:

KYAUTATA GUDA UKU SIFFOFIN SARA

A ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, Shugaba Trnmp.s ya sanya hannu a cikin dokar Dokar Inganta Noma ta shekarar 2018, Buga. L. 115-334 (Lissafin Noma na 2018). Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018 ta samar da izinin doka ta hemp don duk dalilai a cikin sigogi da aka shimfiɗa a cikin ka'idodin.  

Ofishin Babban Lauya (OGC) ya ba da ra'ayoyin da aka haɗo don magance tambayoyi game da sev. eral na hemp da alaka da tanadi na 2018 Farm Bill, ciki har da: wani lokaci-fita daga masana'antu hemp matukin jirgi iko a cikin Aikin gona dokar na 2014 (2014 Farm Bill) (Sashe na 7605); wani gyara ga Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946 don ba da izini ga jihohi da kabilun Indiya don tsara samar da hemp ko bi tsarin Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona (USDA) da ke tsara samar da hemp (Sashe na 10113); samar da ingantaccen tsari na tabbatar da wadatar kogin hemp a cikin kasuwanci (Sashe na 10114); da kuma cire hemp daga Dokar Abin da Aka Kula (Kashi na 12619).

Mabuɗin ƙarshe na ra'ayin shari'a na OGC sune masu zuwa:

  1. Har zuwa lokacin da aka aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta 2018 a kan Disamba 20, 2018, an cire hemp daga jadawalin I na Dokar Abubuwan Kula da Abin da ba shi da amfani.
  2. Bayan USDA ta buga ƙa'idodin aiwatar da sabon tanadin samar da hemp na Dokar Fa2018m na Fa1m na shekarar 1946 da ke kunshe a cikin Dokar Kasuwancin Noman na 01, Statesasashe da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amalar wucewa ba ko aika jigilar hemp bisa doka da oda a ƙarƙashin Tsarin Jiha ko alabila ko a karkashin lasisi wanda aka bayar a karkashin USDA
  3. Hakanan jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amala tsakanin sufuri ko jigilar hemp bisa doka ba a ƙarƙashin Farm ɗin 2014
  4. Mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya wanda ya shafi abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin dokar hanawa na shekaru 10 kan samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kasuwancin Noma ta exceptionasarin banbanci ya shafi mutumin da ya haɓaka hemp a ƙarƙashin Dokar Farm ta Faris ta 2014 kafin Disamba 20, 2018, kuma wanda hukuncin ya faru tun kafin wannan ranar.

KYAUTA Mayu 28, 2019

Shafi2

Tare da aiwatar da Dokar Farm Bill na 2018, hemp na iya haɓaka kawai (I) tare da ingantacciyar lasisin da USDA ta ba da, (2) ƙarƙashin shirin USDA wanda aka amince da shi ko alabilar Tribal, ko (3) a ƙarƙashin ikon sarrafa masana'antar hem matatar jirgin sama ta Farm Bill 2014 . Wancan iko na matukan jirgi zai ƙare shekara guda bayan USDA ta ƙaddamar da shirin don bayar da lasisin USDA a ƙarƙashin tanadin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018.

Yana da mahimmanci ga jama'a su gane cewa Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta kiyaye ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da suka tsara samar na hemp da suka fi tsauri fiye da Dokar Tarayya. Don haka, yayin da Jiha ko Indianabila ba za su iya jigilar jigilar hemp ta hanyar wannan jihar ko ƙabilar teRRitory ba, ana iya ci gaba da aiwatar da dokokin jihar ko kabilanci waɗanda ke haɓaka haɓaka hemp a cikin wannan Jiha ko ƙabilar teRRitory.

Hakanan yana da mahimmanci a jaddada cewa Dokar Farm ta 2018 ba ta tasiri ko canza ikon Sakataren Kiwan lafiya da Ayyukan Jama'a ko Kwamishinan Abinci da Magunguna don tsara hemp a ƙarƙashin dokokin Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna ta Amurka (FDA).

USDA na tsammanin samar da ka'idojin aiwatar da sabbin hukumomin samar da hemp a shekarar 2019.

Ma'aikatar Aikin Noma na Amurka

Ofishin Babban Mai ba da shawara

Washington D.C.

20250-1400

STEPHEN            ER VADEN

KARATUN LITTAFIN

Bari 28, 2019

TUNATARWA DON SONYY SAKATAREN SAKON NA NOMA

SAURARA:      

 BAYANIN HUKUNCIN SAUKI CIKIN KYAUTA YANCIN HANKALIN MAGANAR ADDU'A NA 2018 JAWACIN HEMP

Wannan yarjejeniya tana ba da ra'ayina na shari'a game da wasu sharuɗɗa na Dokar Inganta Aikin Noma na 1. ("Dokar Noma ta 2018"), Pu_b L A'a. 2018-115, dangane da hemp.

Kamar yadda aka yi bayani a kasa, wannan takardar ta kawo karshen follQwing:

  1. Tun daga aiwatar da Dokar 2018 Fam1 na 20 a ranar 2018 ga Disamba, 1, hemp an cirevt2018d daga jadawalin na Dokar Sarrafa Abubuwa ("CSA") kuma yanzu ba a bayyana Hemp mai sarrafawa ba a ƙarƙashin Dokar Fa1m ta 0.3 don haɗa kowane irin wiwi tsire-tsire, ko abin banƙyama daga gare ta, wanda ya ƙunshi fiye da kashi 9 cikin ɗari na Delta-XNUMX tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) ko mahimmin nauyi.
  2. Bayan Depaitment of Agriculture ("USDA" ko "Depa1tment") wallafa dokokin aiwatar da hemp samar arziki na 2018 Farm Bill dauke da subtitle G na aikin gona Tallata dokar 1946 ("AMA; '), Amurka da kabilun Indiya na iya ba hana safarar manyan yankuna ko jigilar hemp ta hanyar doka ta hanyar tsarin Jiha ko Kabila ko a ƙarƙashin lasisin da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin Sashen
  3. Statesasashe da ƙabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana safarar manyan yankuna ko jigilar hemp ta hanyar da doka ta samar a ƙarƙashin Dokar Aikin Noma na 2014 (“2014 Farm Bill”).
  4. A mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya wanda ya shafi abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin dokar hanawa na shekaru 10 akan samar da hemp ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA. Ban da wannan ya shafi mutumin da ya yi haɓaka ta halal a karkashin Dokar Frum na shekarar 2014 kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, wanda kuma hukuncinsa ya kasance tun kafin wannan ranar.

Wannan ambaton ya kuma ba da fifikon mahimman fannoni biyu na tanadin Dokar Farm ta 2018 da ta shafi hemp. Da farko, Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da izinin jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da suka tsara samar (amma ba ma'amalar sufuri ko jigilar kaya ba) na hemp waɗanda suka fi ƙarfin dokar Tarayya. Misali, Dokar Jiha ta hana haɓaka ko haɓakar hemp na iya ci gaba da aiwatar dashi a waccan jihar. Na biyu, Dokar Gona ta Farfa ta 2018 ba ta tasiri ko canza ikon Sakataren Kiwan lafiya da Ayyukan Jama'a ko Kwamishinan Abinci da Magunguna a ƙarƙashin Dokokin Gudanar da Abinci da Magunguna na Amurka.

  1. TARIHI

Th62018 Farm Bill, Buga. L. A. 115-334, ya sanya ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, ya hada da tanadi da yawa da suka shafi hemp.1 Wannan ra'ayoyin na shari'a ya mayar da hankali ne a kan sassan 7605, 10113, 10114, da 12619, an taƙaita a ƙasa.

  • sashe 7605 ya gyara sashi na 7606 na Dokar Noma ta 2014 (7 USC § 5940), wanda ya ba da izini ga cibiyoyin ilimi mai zurfi ko ragin kayan gona don bunkasa ko noma hemp na masana'antu a ƙarƙashin wasu yanayi - wato, idan hemp ɗin ya girma ko kuma an yi shi don dalilai na bincike a cikin Jihar da ke ba da damar noman hemp Daga cikin wasu abubuwa, sashe na 7605 ya kara da cewa a 2014 Farm Bill § 7606 don bukatar Sakataren Noma (“Sakatare”) ya gudanar da binciken wadannan shirye-shiryen bincike na hemp sannan ya gabatar da rahoto ga Majalisa. Sashe na 11 kuma ya soke 7605 Frum Bill§ 2014, fara aiki shekara guda bayan ranar da Sakatare ya kafa tsari a karkashin sashi na 7606C na 2
  • sashe 10113 aJ11ends AMA ta ƙara sabon juzu'I na G (sassan 297A zuwa 297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) da suka shafi samar da hemp. A karkashin wannan sabuwar hukuma, wata jiha ko wata kabila ta Indiya wacce ke son samun ikon kafa doka ta farko game da samar da hemp a waccan Jiha ko yankin wannan kabilar ta Indiya na iya gabatar da ita, don yardar Sakatariyar, shirin da ya shafi lura da tsarin irin wannan. hemp samarwa .. Dubi AMA § 297B. Ga Jihohi ko kabilun Indiya wadanda ba su da tsare-tsaren amincewa, an umarci Sakatare ya tsayar da shirin na Ma'aikatar game da sa ido da ka'idodin samar da hemp a yankunan. Dubi AMA§ 297C. Da

1 Fayil na Fann 2014 ya bayyana "Masana'antu hemp" kamar yadda "tsire-tsire Cannabis yau L. kuma kowane ɓangare na irin wannan tsire-tsire, ko yana girma ko a'a, tare da tarin tara-tara tetrahydrocannabinol wanda bai wuce kashi 9 bisa ɗari bisa mizanin nauyi ba." 0.3 USC § 7 (a) (5940). Bill Fann na 2 ya ƙara sabon, ɗan bambanci daban-daban na "hemp" a cikin sashi na 297A na AMA, an fassara shi a matsayin “tsire-tsire Cannabis na yau L. kuma duk wani prui na wannan shuka, gami da seedsa thean shi da dukkan ivan itacen, ctsactsan ruwa, cannabinoids, isomers, acid, salts, and salt of isomers, ko girma ko ba , tare da tarin Delta-9 tetrahydrocrumabinol wanda bai wuce kashi 0.3 bisa dari bisa ma'aunin nauyi dJy ba. " 7 USC

  • 16390 (1). Dukkanin ma'anar biyu suna buƙatar taro na THC wanda bai wuce 0.3 kashi don Cannabis sativa L. shuka da za a yi la'akari da hemp gaban marijuana. Don dalilan wannan ra'ayi na doka, Ina amfani da sharuɗɗan "Hemp" da kuma "Masana'antu hemp" musayarwa.

2 Rahoton taron wanda yake tare da Fann Bill na 2018 yayi bayanin illar sokewar kamar haka: “Tanadin kuma ya soke shirye-shiryen gwajin hemp na bincike shekara guda bayan Sakatare ya fitar da dokar karshe wacce ta ba da damar hada-hadar kasuwanci kamar yadda aka bayar a sashe 297C na [AMA]. ” HR REP. A'a. 115-1072, a 699 (2018). ·

Har ila yau, ana bukatar sakatare don yada ƙa'idodi da jagororin aiwatar da taken

  1. Dubi AMA § 297D. Sabuwar ikon kuma tana ba da ma'anar (duba AMA § 297A) da kuma izinin abubuwan da suka dace (duba AMA § 297E).
  • sashe 10114 (7 UC § 16390 bayanin kula) wani tanadi ne mai ɗaukar ra'ayi wanda ke nuna cewa babu abin da ke cikin taken X na Dokar Farm ta 2018 da ta hana kasuwancin ma'amala ko kayayyakin hemp. Sashe na 10114 kuma ya ba da cewa Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su haramta wucewar safarar kayayyaki ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko kayayyakin hemp ba daidai da ƙasan G ta hanyar Jiha ko teITitory na kabilar Indiya.
  • sashe 12619 gyara CSA don cire hemp daga ma'anar CSA game da mariju Sashe na 1 619 kuma ya ƙare daCSAtoexclude THC a cikin hemp daga Jadawalin I.3 \ ::

A aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018, Majalisa ta ba da izinin samar da hemp don duk dalilai a cikin sigogin doka amma an ba shi ikon Amurka da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da wasu tsauraran dokoki da ke tsara samar da hemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Tun daga aiwatar da Dokar Fa2018m ta shekarar 1 a ranar 20 ga Disamba120181 An cire Hemp daga Jadawalin I na Abubuwan da Aka Kula da Abubuwan da ke Kula da shi kuma Bai Tsaya Tsayayyar Abin da Aka Gudanar ba.

CSA § 102 (6) ya bayyana. "Abu mai sarrafawa" yana nufin "magani ko wani abu, ko mai gabatarwa na gaba, wanda aka haɗa cikin jadawalin I, II, IIl, .JV, ko V na sashin B na wannan take. . . . ” 21 USC § 802 (6). Marijuana4 abu ne mai sarrafawa wanda aka jera cikin jadawalin I na CSA. Dubi CSA § 202 (c) (10), jadawalin I (21 USC § 812 (c), Jadawalin I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Lissafin Farm na 2018 ya inganta CSA ta hanyoyi biyu.

  • Na farko, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (a) gyara CSA fassarar fassarar marijuana don ware h mp. Kafin aiwatar da Dokar Fam2018 ta 1, CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) ya bayyana marijuana kamar haka:
  • Kalmar 'marihuana' tana nufin dukkan sassan tsire-tsire Cannabis sativa L., ko suna girma ko basa girma; tsabarsa; murfin da aka ciro daga kowane pa1t na irin wannan shuka; kuma kowane mahadi, kerawa, gishiri, kayan hadawa, cakuda, ko shirye-shiryen irin wannan shuka, 'yayanta ko kuma res Irin wannan tetm din ba ya hada da daskararrun tsirrai na irin wannan tsiron, zaren da ake samu daga irin wadannan sandunan, mai ko biredin da aka yi a cikin kwayar irin wannan shuka , duk wani mahadi, kerawa, gishiri, kayan kwalliya, cakuda, ko shirye-shiryen bishiyar kara girma (sai dai gudan da aka samo daga ciki), zare, mai, ko kek,

3 Don backgroundarin bayanin baya · akan samar da hemp kafin aiwatar da 2018 Fann Bi.II, gani Sabis ɗin Nazarin Majalisa, "Hemp a matsayin Kayan Noma" (RL32725) (wanda aka sabunta Yuli 9, 2018), availiya at https: // crsreports.majalisa.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Wannan ra'ayi yana amfani da lafazin gama gari na "marijuana" sai dai lokacin da aka kawo CSA, wanda ke amfani da rubutun “marihuana”.

ko ƙwayar haifuwa irin wannan shuka wanda ba zai iya iya yin shuka ba.

Kamar yadda aka gyara ta da Asusun Farm na 2018, ma'anar CSA na marijuana yanzu tana karanta:

  • Arin zuwa ƙaramin sashi na (B); kalmar 'marihuana' na nufin dukkan sassan shuka Cannabis sativa , ko girma ko ba; tsaba daga gare ta; da resin cirewa daga kowane bangare na irin wannan shuka; kuma kowane fili, kerawa, gishirin, asalinsu, cakuda, ko shiri irin wannan shuka, da tsaba ko guduro.
  • Kalmar 'marihuana' ba ta haɗa da ba
  • hemp, kamar yadda aka ayyana a sashi na 297A na Dokar Siyar da Noma ta shekarar 1946; ko

8.

  • balagaggun tsabagen bishiyar irin wannan tsiron, zaren da ake samarwa daga irin wannan kara; mai ko waina da aka yi daga

irin wannan shuka, kowane fili, tsirarwa, gishiri, tushen, cakuda, ko shiri irin wannan daskararren itaciya (sai dai resin exn · hù daga ciki), fiber, man, ko cuku, ko ƙwayar irin wannan tsiron da bazai iya shuka ba.

  • Na biyu, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (b) ya yiwa CSA kwaskwarima don cire THC a cikin hemp daga kalmar "tetrahydrocannabinols" a cikin jadawalin Kamar yadda aka gyara ta hanyar Farm Bill 2018, CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), jadawalin I (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), jadawalin I) yanzu ya karanta:

Tetrahydrocannabinols, ban da tetrahydrocannabinols in hemp (kamar yadda aka ayyana Karkashin sashi

297A na Dokar Siyar da Noma ta shekarar 1946).

Ta hanyar inganta ma'anar marijuana don ware hemp kamar yadda aka ayyana a AMA § 297A, Majalisa ta cire hemp daga jadawalin I kuma cire shi gaba ɗaya daga CSA. A takaice dai, hemp ba abu bane mai sarrafawa. Hakanan, ta hanyar gyara jadawalin zan ware THC a hemp, Majalisa ta kuma cire THC a hemp daga CSA.

Yana da mahimmanci a san cewa wannan katsewar hemp (da THC a hemp) suna aiwatar da kansu. Kodayake dole ne a sabunta ka'idojin aiwatar da CSA don yin daidai da ƙididdigar dokar Farm ta 2018 ga CSA, ba za a buga fitowar waɗancan ƙa'idodin ka'idojin ba ko kuma wani aiki da ya wajaba don aiwatar da wannan cirewar.

Na magance nan manyan maganganu guda biyu zuwa ra'ayi cewa ƙaddamar da hemp shine aiwatar da aikin kai. Rashin yarda na farko shine, saboda ba a buga ƙa'idodi ba a ƙarƙashin CSA

  • 201, canje-canje na majalisa don tsara jituwa na game da hemp ba shi da tasiri. Wannan hani ba shi da inganci.

Hanya na yau da kullun don gyara jadawalin CSA shine ta hanyar lalacewa. A karkashin CSA

  • 201 (a), Babban Lauyan "bisa ka'ida" zai iya karawa, cirewa, ko canzawa tsakanin jadawalin, duk wani magani ko wasu abubuwa a yayin gudanar da wasu binciken. 21 USC
  • 81l (a). Koyaya, majalisa kuma za a iya gyara ta kai tsaye ta Majalisa ta hanyar canje-canje ga doka; kuma Majalisa tayi hakan sau da yawa.5 ·

'Duba, misali, Buga. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (jadawalin gyare-gyare Ina ƙara da wakilan cannabimimetic); Buga. L. 101-647,

  • 1902 (a) (jadawalin gyaran rashin lafiya don ƙara magungunan anabolic steroids).

Obayan adawa na biyu shine, saboda canje-canje na majalisa don tsara jadawalin I game da hemp bai bayyana ba a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11, cirewar ba tukuna. Wannan ƙin yarda ba shi da inganci.

Yana da fa'ida cewa ƙa'idodin ƙa'idoji na ƙaho.  Duba Nat '/ Tsarin Iyali & Rubutawa. Lafiya Ass'n, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) ("A [A] ƙa'idar aiki mai ci gaba koyaushe tana kan doka mai saɓani [.]"). Majalisa ta kafa jadawalin CSA guda biyar a cikin doka, suna ba da cewa "jadawalin jadawalin zai kasance da farko ya ƙunshi abubuwan da aka lissafa a wannan ɓangaren." 21

USC § 812 (a) .6 Majalisa ta ci gaba da bayar da cewa “za a sake sabunta jadawalin da wannan sashin ya kafa ta wannan sashin kuma ana sake buga shi bisa tsarin karatun harshe a cikin shekaru biyu wanda zai fara shekara guda bayan Oktoba 27, 1970, kuma za a sabunta shi kuma ana sake bugawa kowace shekara bayan haka. ” 21 USC § 812 (a). Abubuwan da ake buƙata don sabuntawa da sake bugawa jadawalin, kodayake, ba sharaɗi bane ga tasirin jadawalin “wanda aka kafa ta [dokar].” Id. A wasu

kalmomi, inda Majalisa da kanta ke gyara jadawalin don ƙara ko cire wani abu mai sarrafawa, ƙari ko cire wancan abun da ke sarrafawa yana tasiri nan da nan lokacin aiwatarwa (ba tare da wani sauran ingantaccen kwanan wata a cikin dokokin ba); ƙarirsa ko cirewa daga jadawalin ba dogaro da lalata ba.7

Don nuna misali, Majalisa ta gyara CSA a cikin 2012 don ƙara "wakilan cannabimimetic" don tsara Ni.

An yi wannan gyaran a matsayin wani ɓangare na Dokar Yarjejeniyar Haramtattun Magunguna na shekarar2012 (Buga.

  1. 112-144, taken XI, subtitle D), wanda aka sanya hannu a kan doka a ranar 9 ga Yulin, 2012. Kusan watanni shida bayan haka, Enungiyar Yin Amfani da Miyagun Kwayoyi ("DEA") ta buga wata doka ta ƙarshe da ta kafa lambobin magunguna ga masu ba da izinin cannabimimetic da aka ƙara zuwa tsara ni ta hanyar Majalisa da kuma yin wasu canje-canje masu dacewa don tsara ni kamar yadda aka tsara a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11. Dubi 78 Fed. Reg. 664 (Janairu 4, 2013). A cikin bayanin dalilin da ya sa sanarwa-da-sharhi game da bata gari ba lallai bane, DEA ta lura da hakan
    • “Sanya wadannan abubuwa 26 cikin Jadawalin I An riga an fara aiki tun daga 9 ga Yuli, " Id. a 665 (an kara jaddadawa). A takaice dai, canje-canje kan dokokin majalisa don tsara lokacin na kasance mai tasiri nan da nan bayan aiwatar da doka. Tunanin waɗancan canje-canjen a cikin 1 CFR § 21, kodayake 1308.11 USC § 21 (a) sun buƙaci aiwatar da waɗancan canje-canje don jadawalin I.

Saboda haka, aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta kammala cire hemp (kuma THC in

hemp8 daga CSA. Gudanar da gyare-gyare zuwa 21 CFR § 1308.11, yayin da ake buƙata azaman pm

6 “Marihuana” da “Tetrahydrocannabinols” duk suna cikin jadawalin farko da Majalisa ta kafa a 1970.

7 CJ Amurka v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, 547 (10th Cir. 1977) (“[F] rashin fitowar jadawalin 'sabuntawa' kamar yadda Sashe na 812 ya buƙata (a) ba shi da wani tasiri a kan ingancin waɗancan abubuwan da aka fara jera su a cikin jadawalai biyar.”); Amurka v. Monroe, 408 F. Tallafawa. 270,274 (ND Cal. 1976) (“Don haka, yayin da sashi na 812 (a) ya ba da umarnin a sarari jadawalin abubuwan sarrafawa da za a sake bugawa, it a bayyane yake cewa Majalisa ba ta da niyyar jumhuriya ta yi aiki a sake fitar da jadawalin, wanda idan aka yi shi ba daidai ba zai sa waɗannan jadawalin su ƙare kuma ya ƙare ……………………………………………………………………… .. [T] he

abin da ake buƙata cewa jadawalin, da zarar an 'sabunta,' a sake 'sake bugawa' shi ne kawai don ƙirƙirar jerin guda ɗaya waɗanda za su iya yin la'akari da duk abubuwan da a halin yanzu ke ƙarƙashin tanadin Dokar …………………………………… ……………………………………………… .. “).

8 Jadawalin I, kamar yadda aka buga a 21 CFR § 1308.11, ya hada da ma'anar "tetrahydrocannabinols" a cikin sakin layi (d) (3I) wanda bai bayyana a cikin CSA ba. Duk da kasancewar waccan ɓarnar a cikin ƙa'idodin haya, I

ofDEA na ci gaba da haƙƙin buga jadawalin da aka sabunta, ba lallai ba ne a aiwatar da canje-canje na Dokar Gona na 2018 don tsara I.9 ·

B.            Bayan Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona ta Buga Dokokin Aiwatar da Hemp Production Providence Shiryawa ko Underarƙashin lasisin da aka Bayar ƙarƙashin Tsarin Sashen. 

AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) yana umurtar Sakatare don ba da ƙa'idodi da jagororin “cikin hanzari yadda ya kamata” don aiwatar da taken G na AMA. 7 USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Waɗannan ƙa'idodin za su magance amincewa da tsare-tsaren Jiha da Tribabila a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297B da bayar da lasisi a ƙarƙashin shirin Sashe a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297C. Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a kasa, da zarar an buga wadannan ka'idoji, Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana safara ko jigilar hemp (gami da kayayyakin da ake hada hemp) da aka samar daidai da shirin kasa ko na Kabila da aka amince da su ko aka samar a karkashin lasisin da aka bayar a karkashin shirin Sashen.

Ana magana da sufuri na hemp a cikin 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114.10 Sashi (a) yana ba da:

  • RULE NA-Babu wani abu a cikin wannan taken ko kuma gyara da aka yi wa wannan lakabin ya haramta kasuwancin tsakiyar hemp (kamar yadda aka ayyana a sashi na 297A na Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946 (kamar yadda aka haɗa da sashi na 10113)) ko samfuran hemp.

7 USC § 16390 bayanin kula. Wannan tanadi ya faɗi cewa babu komai a cikin taken X na Fann Fan 2018

Ina da ra'ayin cewa THC a hemp an cire shi daga THC a matsayin jadawalin da zan cona · olled abu a ƙarƙashin CSA ta hanyar gyaran dokar Farm na 2018.

9 Jadawalin I, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11, ya haɗa da jerin keɓaɓɓun “cirewar marihuana” a sakin layi

(d) (58). Ba a nuna cirewar Marijuana a cikin jadawalin I a cikin ƙa'idar doka ba saboda an ƙara ta bayan! 970 da tsari a ƙarƙashin CSA § 201. An fassara kalmar "cirewar marihuana" a ƙa'ida a matsayin "tsame mai ɗauke da ɗaya ko fiye cannabinoids wanda aka samo daga kowane tsire-tsire na jinsin Cannabis, ban da murfin da aka rabu (ko danyen mai ko kuma tsarkake shi) wanda aka samo daga shuka. " Dokar Gona ta 2018 ta gyara ma'anar "marihuana" don ware hemp, amma saboda ma'anar ƙa'idar "cirewar marihuana" a cikin jadawalin bana amfani da kalmomin "marihuana" ko "teb · ahydrocannabinols" don ayyana tenn, tambaya ta taso ko har yanzu an cire hemp ɗin ana ɗaukar sa a cikin jadawalin Na sarrafa abu. Duk da yake ba a kara magance batun a cikin wannan ra'ayi ba, Ina tsammanin sake fasalin dokar "marihuana" ya cire kayan hawan daga jadawalin I, kuma wannan yana nuna irin wannan a cikin 21 CFR  § 1308.1I (d) (58) zai zama gyara ne kawai mai daidaitawa. ·

10 Hakanan ana magance sufuri a cikin ayyukan da suka dace na shekara-shekara, wanda ke maimaita kudaden da Tarayyar ta keɓe daga amfani dashi don hana jujjuyawar hemp. Koyaya, waɗancan tanadin suna iyakance saboda su Adireshin hemp kawai aka samar a ƙarƙashin ikon Fann Bill na 2014, kuma suna magance kawai tarayya ayyukan gwamnati. Wato, yayin da tanade-tanaden suka haramtawa 'yan wasan tarayya hana su safarar abin da ake kira "2014 Farm Bill hemp, ”ba su takura matakin Jiha ba in game da wannan Dubi Noma, Kiran karkara, Abinci da Magunguna Gudanarwa, da Dokar Tsara Ayyuka na Hukumomin, 2019, Pub. L. 116-6, div. B, § 728 (hana kuɗin da wannan Dokar ko kuma wata doka ta samar don amfani da su ya saɓa wa 2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ko “to prohibit da transportation1  aiki, sale, or use of masana'antul hemp, or iris of ruwan 'ya'yan itaceh shuka, cewa is girma or wanda aka noma shi bisa ga [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], a ciki ko a wajen jihar da hemp masana'antu ke girma ko horarwa ”). Ka kuma duba Kasuwanci, Adalci, Kimiyya, da kuma Hadin gwiwar Ma'aikatar Tsarin Mulki, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, div. C, § 536 ("Babu ɗayan kuɗaɗen da wannan Dokar ta samar da za a iya amfani da su ta saɓawa [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] ta Ma'aikatar Shari'a ko Enarfafa Enarfafa Magunguna.").

ya hana ma'amala da kewayon hemp. Koyaya, wannan tanadi, tsayawa shi kaɗai, ba shi da tasirin ƙaddamar da zirga-zirgar hemp a cikin Jihohi ko yankunan Tribal inda aka haramta irin wannan sufuri a ƙarƙashin dokar ƙasa ko ta Tribal.

Sashe na (b), duk da haka, musamman ya hana Jihohi da ƙabilun Indiya daga hana safarar hemp ta waccan jihar ko kuma Kotun Kabilanci. Sashe na (b) ya bayar

  • 1ilkertaccen HEMP DA HEMP -Na jihar ko Indiya Kuri'a zata haramta transp011ation ko jigilar hemp ko matakan hemp in daidai da taken G na Dokar Kasuwancin Noma ta 1946 (kamar yadda aka ƙara ta sashi na 10113) ta cikin Jiha ko yanki goma na Triabilar Indiya, kamar yadda ya dace.

7 USC § 16390 bayanin kula. A takaice, wannan tanadi yana aiwatar da dokar jihar har zuwa irin dokar wannan Jiha

ya hana transst011ation na jigilar kaya ko jigilar hemp da aka samar daidai da taken G na AMA.

Dangane da dokar tsarin mulki, “[shi] Babban Magana ya bayar da cikakkiyar doka cewa dokar tarayya 'za ta kasance mafi girman Dokar Kasa; kuma za a daure Alkalai a kowace Jiha da shi, duk wani abu a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki ko Dokokin kowane [S] jingina ga sabanin sabanin…. ' A karkashin wannan ka’idar, Majalisa na da ikon share dokar [S] tate. ” Arizona v. Amurka, 567

US 387, 398-99 (2012) (yana ambatar US Const. Art. VI, cl. 2). "A karkashin koyarwar fifikon tarayya, dokar tarayya ta maye gurbin ko maye gurbin wata ka'ida ko ka'idojin da ba su dace ba." Amurka v. Zadeh, 820 FJd 746, 751 (5th Cir. 2016).

Kotunan Tarayya gabaɗaya sun yarda da rukunoni uku na fifiko: (1) bayyana preemption (inda Majalisa ta “janye” powersarfi daga throughasa ta hanyar “bayar da takaddama ta musamman”); 11 (2) filin keɓewa (inda Jihohi “ba a hana shi daga tsarawa gudanar da aiki a cikin wani yanki wanda Majalisa, ke aiki a ƙarƙashin ikon da ya dace, ta ƙaddara dole ne a tsara ta ta hanyar keɓancewarta ”);12 da kuma rigingimun rikici (inda ake shirya dokokin Jihohi lokacin da suka saɓa da dokar Tarayya, wanda ya haɗa da yanayi “inda 'bin ƙa'idodin tarayya da na [S] ba zai yiwu ba a zahiri' '' ko kuma yanayin da“ inda aka ƙalubalanci dokar [S] yana matsayin cikas ga aiwatarwa da aiwatar da cikakkun dalilai da manufofin Majalisa ”').13 Arizona, 567 US a 399-400 (bayanan da aka tsallake); ga kuma Zadeh, 820 F.3d a 751.

11 Duba, misali, 7 USC § 1639i (b) (“(b) Tarayyar Tarayya.-Babu Jiha ko wani yanki na siyasa na wata Jiha na iya kai tsaye ko a kaikaice a ƙarƙashin kowane iko ko ci gaba da tasiri kamar kowane abinci ko iri a cikin kasuwancin alaƙa duk wata bukata da ta shafi lakabin ko abinci (gami da abincin da ake bayarwa a cikin gidan abinci ko kafa irinsa) ko iri iri ne da aka keɓe su (wanda zai haɗa da irin waɗannan sharuɗɗan kamar yadda masu Sakataren Aikin Gona) ko aka haɓaka ko aka samar ta hanyar amfani da injiniyan kwayar halitta, gami da duk wani buƙatu na iƙirarin cewa abinci ko iri ya kasance ko ya ƙunshi wani sinadari da aka haɓaka ko aka samar ta hanyar amfani da injiniyan kwayar halitta. ”).

12 Duba, misali, Pac. Gas & Elec. Co. v. Jihar Energy Res. Kiyayewa & Dev. Comm 'n, 461 US 190,212 (“[T) gwamnatin tarayya ta mamaye dukkan fagen damuwar kare makamin nukiliya, sai dai iyakantattun ikon da aka bayar a sarari ga kwanakin [S].”).

  • n Duba, misali, 21 USC 903 (”Babu wani tanadi na wannan ƙaramin juzu'in da za a fassara shi yana mai nuna niyya daga ɓangaren Majalisar don mallakar filin da wannan tanadin yake aiki, gami da hukunce-hukuncen aikata laifi, ga keɓe duk wata dokar Jiha kan batun da zai yi in ba haka ba kasance cikin ikon Jiha, sai dai in da akwai

Sashe na 10114 (b) na Fann Bill na 2018 ya gamsar da ma'anar rikice-rikice saboda dokar ƙasa ta hana haɗakar sufuri ko jigilar hemp ko samfuran hemp da aka samar daidai da taken G na AMA zai kasance cikin rikici kai tsaye da sashe 10114 (b), wanda ya ba da wata hukuma da za ta haramta irin wannan aiki.14 Saboda haka, kowace majalisar dokoki ta tsara wannan dokar. Sakamakon iri ɗaya ya shafi kabilun Indiya.15

A takaice, da zarar an buga ƙa'idodin aiwatar da aiwatarwa, Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya haramta jigilar hemp bisa ga doka ba a ƙarƙashin shirin da aka amince da shi a cikin jihar ko tsarin ƙabila ko a karkashin lasisi da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin shirin Ma'aikatar.

C.            Stlites da Indianabilun Indiya Ba za su Iya Haramta Jigilar Motoci ko jigilar Hemp ta fullyarfafa ta Underarfafa Dokar Noma ta 2014 ba.

Saboda 2018 Fmm Bill ba zai soke ikon matukin jirgi nan da nan a cikin 2014 Farm Bill § 7606 - kuma saboda wallafa dokokin da ke aiwatar da kayan hawan hemp na Fann Bill na 2018 ba zai yiwu ba sai daga baya a 2019-tambayar ta taso ko Jihohi. kuma an dakatar da kabilun Indiya daga hana safarar manyan garuruwa ko jigilar kayan kwalliya (gami da kayayyakin da aka haifa) bisa doka ta 2014 Fmm Bill. Amsar ta dogara da ma'anar jumlar “daidai da ƙaramin taken G na Kasuwancin NomaActof1946 ″ in2018FFBBill § 10114 (b) (7U.SC § 1639onote). Kawai hemp da aka samar daidai da subtitle G aka rufe shi da tanadin preemption da aka tattauna a sama. Kamar yadda aka bayyana a ƙasa, ra'ayina ne cewa amsar wannan tambayar ita ce eh, ta hanyar aikin AMA § 297B (f).

AMA§ 297B (f) ya bayyana tasirin doka na tanade-tanaden da ke ba jihohin da kabilun Indiya damar haɓaka tsare-tsaren don yin amfani da madaidaicin ikon samar da hemp a cikin waccan Jiha ko yanki na kabilar Indiya. Musamman, sashe na 297B (f) yana ba da:

(f) MAFARKI.-Babu wani abu a wannan sashin da ya haramta samar da hemp a cikin Jiha ko ka’idar aikin kabilar Indiya-

(!) wanda ba a yarda da shirin Jiha ko Tribal ba a ƙarƙashin wannan sashin, idan samar da hemp ya kasance daidai da sashi na 297C ko wasu dokokin Tarayya (gami da ƙa'idodi); da

(2) idan jihar ko kabilar Indiya ba ta hana fitar da hemp ba.

rikici mai kyau tsakanin wannan tanadi na wannan ƙaramin juzu'in da waccan dokar ta ƙasa ta yadda duka biyun ba za su iya ci gaba da tsayawa tare ba. ").

14 A madadin haka, sashi na 10114 (b) ana iya ɗaukar shi don bayar da iznin rage ƙarfi saboda ƙa'idar ƙa'idar ta janye karfin ikon jihar ta hana zirga-zirga ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko samfurori ta hanyar Jiha.

15 AMA§ 297B (a) (3) ya ƙunshi tanadin hana cin hanci da rashawa da ke nuna cewa babu wani abu da ke cikin 297B (a) “yana yin taƙama ko ƙayyade duk wata doka ta wata ƙasa ko ƙabilar Indiya” da ke Haramta samar da hemp ”kuma“ ya fi ƙarfi fiye da [subtitle G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Koyaya, wannan ƙaddarar rigakafin ya iyakance ga samar na hemp - ba da sufuri ko jigilar hemp- don haka ba ya rikici da 2018 Farm Bill§ IOI14 (b).

7 USC § 1639p (f) (an kara jaddadawa).

Wannan tanadi ya ba da damar samar da hemp a cikin Yankin ko yankin yanki wanda jihohi ko ƙabilar ba su da shirin amincewa a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297B. Wannan tanadi ya yarda cewa, a cikin irin wannan yanayin, samar da hemp a cikin waccan Jiha ko taTa'ilin kabila har yanzu ana iya yarda da shi idan an samar da shi ko dai daidai da tsarin Sashin a karkashin AMA § 297C or daidai da sauran dokokin Tarayya, kuma Jiha ko kabila ba ta hana yin samarwa ba.

Harshen fili na subtitle G na AMA, kamar yadda aka ƙara shi a cikin Dokar Gona na 2018, don haka a bayyane yake yana nazarin yanayin da ba a samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin shirin 297B da aka amince da shi ba kuma ba a sake ba shi a ƙarƙashin lasisin da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin shirin Ma'aikatar 297C ba, amma har yanzu yana nan da doka aka samar a ƙarƙashin

"Sauran dokokin Tarayya." Ni ra'ayina ne cewa "sauran dokokin tarayya" sun kunshi Dokar Noma ta 2014

  • 7606.16

A iya sanina, kafin kafa shekarar 2014 Farm Bill§ 7606, CSA ita ce kawai Dokar Tarayya da ta ba da izinin samar da hemp. Tabbas, samar da hemp- a matsayin "ƙirar" jadawalin da na sarrafa abu - gabaɗaya an hana shi ƙarƙashin CSA sai dai gwargwadon izini a ƙarƙashin rijista ko gafartawa a ƙarƙashin CSA. Dubi 21 USC

  • 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, da 823; 21 CFR paJt 1301. An ba (1) cire hemp a matsayin abu mai sarrafawa a ƙarƙashin CSA, (2) jinkirta soke ikon 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606, da (3) kafa sabbin hukumomin samar da hemp a cikin subtitle G na AMA, ra'ayina ne cewa "sauran dokokin Tarayya" suna nufin tanade-tanaden Dokar Gona na 2014
  • 7606, waɗanda har yanzu suna kan aiki. Irin wannan fassarar yana ba da sakamako nan take ga kalmar “sauran dokokin Tarayya.” Yana da "mahimmin ƙa'idar fassara wanda alƙalai dole ne su ba .fahim, idan ya yiwu, ga kowane sashi da maganar doka." Duba, misali, Loughrin v. Amurka, 573 US 351, 358 (2014) (ambaton ciki da bayanan da aka ambata). · ·

Saboda haka, karanta AMA§ 297B (f) cikin jituwa tare da 2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), idan an samar da hemp bisa doka bisa ga 2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ("sauran dokokin tarayya"), to, ta viJtue na AMA § 297B (f), ba a hana samar da shi ba. Irin wannan hemp ɗin an samar dashi "daidai da subtitle G," wanda ke magance irin wannan scenaifo, kamar AMA

  • 297B (f) bangare ne na juzu'i G. Dangane da haka, a ƙarƙashin 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114 (b), Jiha ko Indiya

16 Wannan Majalisa ta hango irin wannan yanayin a bayyane yake ga yaren a cikin 2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} jinkirta maimaitawar shekarar2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 har zuwa watanni 12) bayan Sakataren ya kafa shirin 297C. Dangane da haka, wannan fassarar ba ta hana ta AMA§ 1C (c) (l) ba, wanda ke ba da: “[i] n shari’ar wata Jiha ko Indiya da ba a yarda da Tsarin Jiha ko alabila ba a ƙarƙashin sashe na 297B, za ta zama haramtacce don samar da hemp a cikin wannan Jiha ko ginshikin goma na wannan ƙabilar ta Indiya ba tare da lasisin da Sakataren ya bayar a ƙarƙashin ƙaramin sashe na (b) ba. An ba da ma'anar "ko wasu dokokin Tarayya" a cikin AMA § 297B (f) (l) - da kuma gaskiyar cewa 297 Farm Bill§ 2014 har yanzu yana aiki

- zai zama karatun wauta ne na AMA §297C (c) (J) don kammala cewa hemp da aka samar bisa ga dokar Tarayya (2014 Fann Bill § 7606) haramtacce ne, a lokaci guda, ba tare da lasisi daban na Sakataren ba. a karkashin shirin 297C. Kamar yadda com1s suka daɗe suna ganewa, fassarar ƙa'idodi na doka wanda “ke haifar da sakamako marasa ma'ana ya zama kauce wa fassarar neman dacewa daidai da manufar kafa doka. ” Griffin v. Oc_eanic Yan kwangila, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

kabila ba za ta hana transp01iation ko jigilar abin da ake kira "2014 Farm Bill hemp" ta hanyar wannan Jiha ko Yankin Yankin ba.17

Sabon cigaba

Na yarda cewa wannan ƙaddamarwa tana cikin tashin hankali tare da yanke hukunci kwanan nan a cikin wani kararraki a Gundumar Idaho, amma kuma ya dace da shawarar da aka yanke kwanan nan a cikin wani shari'ar a Yankin Kudancin West Virginia. Babu kotun da ta yi magana da “sauran dokokin Tarayyar” a cikin AMA § 297B (f) (l), wanda na sami tabbatacce.

In Babban Sky Scientific LLC v. 'Yan Sanda na Jihar Jdaho, Shari'ar mai lamba 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), alkalin kotun majistare ya gano cewa ba za a iya samar da kayan kwalliyar OregoI1 zuwa Colorado da 'yan sanda na jihar Idaho za su yi aiki da su "daidai da taken G" saboda Jiha na asali har yanzu bashi da shirin da aka amince da shi rn1der AMA § 297B kuma Sakataren bai riga ya kafa tsari a karkashin AMA § 297C ba.18 Alkalin kotun ya amince da dokar Oregon wacce ke ba da izinin haɓakar hemp, lura da masu shigar da karar ta yi ikirarin cewa an samar da hemp ne ta hanyar ma'aikatar gona ta Oregon wacce ta ke da lasisi (kuma, saboda haka, mai yiwuwa ne a cikin bin ka'idodin 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606).19 Duk da haka, a lokacin da yake kin amincewa da masu shigar da kara don neman umarnin farko, alkalin kotun · ya kammala da cewa, a yayin zartar da Dokar Gona ta 2018, Majalisa ta yi niyyar “kirkirar wani tsari wanda zai kula da yadda ake kera kayayyaki da kuma jigilar hemp zuwa manyan dokokin tarayya, da kuma tsarin shine a kunshe a cikin tsarin gwamnatin tarayya (ko mai biyaya [S] tate ko [T] ribal) don samar da hemp da aka samo a cikin Fmm Bill na 2018. "20 Kodayake Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018 ta ba da izinin jigilar hemp a kan layin jihohi, alkalin kotun ya ce za a ba da kariya ga irin kasuwancin da ake samu a kan ka’idojin da aka zayyana a karkashin dokar Tsarin Farm na 11.1 Saboda haka, saboda waɗannan ƙa'idodin ba su wanzu har yanzu ba, yin amfani da hemp ɗin yana ƙarƙashin dokar Idaho da ta hana fassarar ta.

USDA ba dare ba ne a Babban Sky harka, kuma wannan ofishi bai gamsar da hukuncin alkalin alkalai ba game da jigilar hemp da doka ta samar a karkashin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014. A

17 Wannan alama kamar ana samun goyan baya a cikin tarihin dokoki. A cikin bayanin tasirin samarwar, Rahoton Taron ya ce: “Yayinda [S] tates da kabilun Indiya na iya iyakance samarwa da sayar da kayayyakin hemp da hemp a cikin iyakokin su, Manajan, a cikin Sec. 10112 [sic], ya amince da ba da damar [S] tates da kabilun Indiya su iyakance safara ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko hemp ta hanyar [S] tate ko Indian Indian01y. ” HR REP. A'a. 115-1072, a 738 (2018). Musamman, Manajan suna magana ne akan yawanci, ba kawai hemp da aka samar a ƙarƙashin shirin da aka tsara ƙarƙashin subtitle G na AMA ba.

18 Duba Babban Sky, Doka ECF. # 32, Hukunce-hukuncen Memba da oda Re: Mai gabatar da kara don motsi na Farko; duba kuma Doka ECF. # 6, Hukunce-hukuncen Memba da Amincewa da Sakamako: Mai gabatar da kara na Gaggauta Motsa Jiki na Gidajewa na Gidajewa da Batun hadewa da kuma Matsayin mai gabatar da kara zuwa Bugun Sakamako (akwai a 2019 WL 438336 (Feb. 2, 2019).

19 Babban Sky, Doka ECF. # 32, a 5, 7-8.

20 Id. a 3.

21 Id. a 19-26.

tare da fassara harshen da doka ta tanada, alkalin kotun ya lura sosai da sanannen ka'ida ta aikin doka da cewa bai kamata a fassara dokoki ba "ta yadda zai samar da wasu ka'idoji iri daya ba daidai ba, mara ma'ana, ko wuce gona da iri." 1 Duk da haka, kamar yana watsi da hakan jagorancin ka'idojin fassara, alkalin bai yi magana ba game da tasirin "sauran dokokin Tarayya" a cikin AMA § 22B (f) ko yunƙurin bawa wannan harshen wata ma'ana. Kotun Idaho ta gaza karanta dokar baki daya kuma ba ta yi la’akari da “sauran dokokin Tarayyar” da na ga ya dace ba. Ganin irin hukuncin farko na hukuncin da mai shari'ar ta yanke, na ga ra'ayinsa ya musanta umarnin farko ba tare da tunani ba.297

Har ila yau, fassarar 2018 Farm Bill § 10114 na ci gaba ta wannan ra'ayin shari'a ya dace da shawarar da aka bayar a Kudancin Yankin Yammacin Virginia. A Amurka v. Mallory, Maganar lamba 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), \ Oepmtment na Justice ya shigar da kara don kama hemp da ake zargi da girma da keta hakkin CSA da kuma waje da ikon 2014 Fann Bill. A batun a wancan batun ne ya samar da wata sanarwa daga kamfanin samar da lasisi ta jihar West Virginia a karkashin shirin jirgin saman Fmm Bill§ 2014 na 7606, inda aka fitar da irin hemp daga kamfanin da ke Kentucky wanda kamfanin mallaka na Kentucky ya ba da lasisin a karkashin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014

  • 7606 shirin matukin jirgi. Kotun ta dogara ne da hada-hadar dokoki - Dokar Noma ta 2014, kayan aikin sun yi aiki da tanadi, 24 da Dokar Gona na 2018 - don soke umarnin farko a kan wanda ake kara25 da kuma yin watsi da karar gwamnati gaba daya. 26 A soke umarnin farko-y , Kotun ta baiwa wadanda ake kara damar daukar kayan hawan da ke fadin layin jihar zuwa Pennsylvania don sarrafawa da sayarwa

Ko da yake Mallory kotu bata da lokacin da zata magance duk wani yunkuri na jihar na hana safarar hemp, kotun tayi tsokaci kan 2018 Fmm Bill § 10114, lura da cewa “tana bada damar bada damar safarar hemp,‘ yayanta, da hemp, kayayyakin da aka samu domin safarar su ta layin jihar. ”28 Ra'ayin alkalin gundumar yayi magana akan hemp da aka samar a karkashin 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 kuma ba hemp da aka samar a karkashin shirin Jiha, Kabilanci, ko Depmtmental ba. Kammalawar da Mall01y kotu ta yi daidai da fassarar maganata cewa Jihohi ba za su iya toshe jigilar hemp ba, ko

22 Id. a 21-22 (ambatawa Padash v. I.NS., 258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004). Alkalin kotun ya ci gaba da cewa;

Ka'ida ce ta tsarin dokoki wanda yakamata doka ta kasance gaba ɗaya gina cewa, idan it ba za a iya hanawa ba, babu wani jumla, jumla, ko kalma da za ta zama mafi girma, mara amfani, ko maras muhimmanci. … Hakkinmu ne mu sanya sakamako, idan zai yiwu, ga kowane sashi da kalmar ƙa'ida.

Id. a 23 (ambato na ciki da kuma ambato daga ciki).

23 Lalle ne, rnling alkalin yana daukaka kara. Duba Babban Sky Sci. LLC v. Bennetts, Magana mai lamba 19-35138 (9th Cir.).

24 Duba sama matattarar 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', Doka ECF. # 60, Ra'ayin Member da oda, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Janairu 17, 2019).

26 Mal / na, BCF Doc. # 72, Ra'ayin Maimaitawa da oda, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, a * 3.

28 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, a * 6:

Page 12

cewa hemp an samar dashi a karkashin Faim Bill na 2014 ko kuma a karkashin wata Jiha, Kabila, ko kuma Sashe na shirin w1der na 2018 Farm Bill. Hakanan shine yanke hukunci na ƙarshe na Kudancin Gundumar West Virginia cowt, kuma ba hukunci bane na farko kamar yadda ra'ayin mai shari'a na gundumar ofldaho yake.29

A cikin sha'anin fassarar doka, rubutun ƙa'idar tana mulki. Dole ne mutum ya karanta wannan rubutun gaba ɗayan sa ya ba ma’anar kalmar eve1y. Dole ne a ba da ma'anar "sauran dokokin Tarayya" ma'ana, kuma wannan yaren a fili yana nufin dokar Tarayya wacce a halin yanzu ke ba da izinin samar da hemp - 2014 Fann Bill § 7606. Saboda haka, hemp da aka samar a ƙarƙashin wannan matukin jirgi an samar da shi kamar yadda ya dace subtitle G na AMA. Statesasashe da ƙabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana jigilar kayan maye ko jigilar irin wannan hemp ta hanyar waccan dokar ta jihar ko ta Tribabilanci ba. ·

D.           Lissafin Farm na shekarar 2018 ya sanya takunkumin hana samar da hemp ta wasu Felons.

Dokar Gona ta shekarar 2018 ta kara wani sabon tanadi na magance ikon wadanda aka yankewa hukunci na samar da hemp. Faim Bill na 2014 yayi shiru kan batun. AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (a nan gaba, "Tanadin Laifi"), kamar yadda Dokar Gona ta 2018 ta ƙara, tana ba da:

(B) FELONY.-

  • A CIKIN SAUKI-FATIMA kamar yadda aka bayar a magana (ii), duk mutumin da aka samu da laifi game da Abin sarrafawa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Jiha ko ta Tarayya · a gabanin, a gaba, ko bayan ranar aiwatar da wannan subtitle ya zama ba zai iya cancanta ba, a lokacin shekaru I0 da ke bin ranar hukuncin-

(!) shiga cikin shirin da aka kafa a ƙarƙashin wannan sashin ko sashe na 297C; da

(II) don samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin kowane ƙa'idoji ko jagororin da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin sashi na 297D (a).

  • -Clause (i) ba zai shafa wa kowane mutum girma hemp da doka ba tare da lasisi ba, rajista, or ko izini a ƙarƙashin shirin matukin jirgi wanda aka ba da izini ta sashi 7606 na Noma Dokar ta2014 (7 USC 5940) kafin ranar aiwatar da wannan rubutun.

7 USC 639 l 3p (e) (10113) (B) (an ƙara girmamawa). Abubuwan da aka ambata zuwa "ranar da aka kafa wannan taken" su ne subtitle na G na AMA, kamar yadda aka ƙara ta sashi na 2018 na 2018 Fann Bill. Saboda haka, "ranar da aka kafa wannan waƙar" ita ce ranar da aka kafa Dokar Gona ta 20 Disamba 2018, XNUMX.

A cikin bayanin shirin Felony, Rahoton taron ya lura cewa:

Duk mutumin da aka samu da laifi game da abin da ake sarrafawa, to ya cancanci ya shiga ƙarƙashin tsarin S [S] ko kuma haƙarƙarin [T] na shekara-shekara bayan ranar da aka yanke hukuncin. Koyaya, wannan haramcin bazai amfani ba ga masu samarwa waɗanda suka kasance cikin yin mu'amala da shirin inshorar lafiya ta S S heate a turance kamar yadda dokar Aikin Gona ta shekarar 2014 ta bayar, kafin aiwatar da wannan taken. Bayanin laifukan da suka biyo baya bayan ranar da aka fara aiwatar da wannan rubutun zai haifar da I 0 shekara

29 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, a * 9 (ƙin yarda da bukatar Amurka don yin kwaskwarima da kuma ba da izinin waɗanda ake tuhuma don watsi). Babban Sky, BCF Doc. # 32, a 28 (musun masu gabatar da kara na umarnin fara aiki tare da lura da cewa comt din zai ba da umarnin a shirya wani taron shirya taron da zai jagoranci shari'ar ci gaba).

Page 13

lokacin shiga ba tare da la'akari da ko mai samarwa ya shiga cikin shirin jirgi mai izini ba a cikin 2014.

HR REP. A'a. 115-1072, a 737 (2018).

A takaice, mutumin da aka yanke masa hukunci game da Babban Laifin Tarayya ko Tarayya da ya shafi abu mai sarrafawa - ba tare da la'akari da lokacin da wannan hukuncin ya faru ba - bai cancanci samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA ba na tsawon shekaru i0 bayan ranar hukuncin. Banda wanzu a cikin magana (ii) na Laifin aikata laifuka wanda ya shafi mutumin da ya ke samar da hemp bisa doka ta Dokar Gona ta 2014 kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, kuma wanda aka yanke masa hukunci game da babban laifin da ya shafi wani abu mai sarrafawa kafin wannan kwanan wata. Jihohi da kabilun Indiya yanzu suna da mukabala] Tabbas don gano ko mutumin da ke son samar da hemp a wannan cin abincin ko yankin Kabila yana da wani hukunci na Tarayya ko na Jiha wanda ya shafi abubuwan sarrafawa wanda zai sa mutumin bai cancanci yin hemp ba.

  • SAURAN MATA

Akwai ƙarin ƙarin mahimman fannoni biyu na wannan batun waɗanda ya kamata a jaddada.

Da farko, Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma tilasta · dokokin da suka shafi samar da hemp da suka fi karfin dokar Tarayya. Dubi AMA

  • 297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) (”Babu wani abu a cikin wannan ƙaramin ƙaramin matakin da ya yi ko ya taƙaita wata doka ta wata kabila ta ƙasa ko ta Indiya da… (i) ta tsara yadda ake keɓe hemp; da (ii) ) ya fi wannan mahimmancin rubutu. "). Misali, Jiha na iya ci gaba da hana girma ko noman hemp a cikin wannan jihar.30 Kamar yadda aka tattauna a sama, duk da haka, yayin da wata Jiha ko kabilar Indiya na iya hana samar da hemp, ba zai iya hana shigo da hemp a tsakanin garuruwa ba an samar da shi daidai da dokar Tarayya.

Na biyu, Faim Bill na 2018 bai shafi ko canza ikon Sakataren Lafiya da Ayyukan Dan Adam ba (“HHS Secretary” ·) ko Commissioner of Food and Drugs (“FDA · · Commissioner”) a ƙarƙashin Federal Food, Drug, da Dokar Kayan kwalliya (21 USC § 301 da seq.) Da sashe na 351 na Dokar Kula da Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a (42 USC § 262). Dubi AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Yayin da AMA§ 297D (b) ya bayar da cewa Sakataren Aikin Gona zai sami “ikon iko” don bayar da dokokin Tarayya da jagororin da suka shafi samar da hemp; wannan hukuma tana karkashin ikon Sakataren HHS da Kwamishinan FDA ne don yada dokokin tarayya da jagororinta a karkashin wadancan dokokin na FDA. 7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Wasu jihohi suna ci gaba da hana haɓakar hemp.  Dubi Taron kasa na majalisun dokoki na Jiha, "Jihar Indu fitina Hemp Dokoki," samuwa a http:// www.11s l. org  /bincike  h/ agriculdaure-da kuma-rural-fitarwa / jihar-· indus trial-hemp-statamsar.aspx # stci (sabuntawar Feb. I, 2019).

  1. KAMMALAWA 

Na bincika tanadi na hemp wanda aka sanya a matsayin patt na lissafin Fann 2018 kuma na kai ga ƙarshe ƙarshe:

  1. Har zuwa lokacin da aka kafa dokar Faty na 2018 a ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, an cire hemp daga jadawalin I na CSA kuma ba shi da wata kulawa
  2. Bayan USDA ta wallafa ƙa'idojin aiwatar da kayan ƙirar hemp na Fatm Bill 2018 da ke ƙunshe a cikin ƙaramin G na AMA, Jihohi da ƙabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana tl1e transp01tation transpation ko jigilar hemp ta hanyar da doka ta ciyar da wani tsarin Jiha ko alabilanci ko ƙarƙashin lasisin da aka bayar nnder da Depattmental                             i;
  3. Statesasashe da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amalar wucewa ko jigilar hemp da doka ta samar ba har zuwa shekarar 2014 Farm
  4. Mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya da ke da alaƙa da abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin ƙuntatawa na rashin cancantar shekaru 10 akan samar da hemp ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA. Ban da haka ya shafi mutumin da ya yi haɓaka ta doka a karkashin Dokar Farm ta 2014 kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, wanda kuma hukuncinsa ya faru tun kafin wannan ranar.

Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da ke ba da izinin samar da hemp da suka fi ƙarfin dokar ta Tarayya. Bugu da ƙari, ilie 2018 Farm Bill ba ya tasiri ko canza ikon Sakatariyar HHS ko Kwamishinan FDA don tsara hemp a ƙarƙashin dokokin FDA masu amfani.

Za a gan ku mako mai zuwa tare da ƙarin Labaran Cannabis!

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Lauyan masana'antar cannabis

316 SW Washington St, Adadin 1A Peoria,
IL 61602, Amurka
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Lauyan masana'antar cannabis

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Lauyan masana'antar cannabis

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IL 61602, Amurka
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