Labaran Cannabis na Buga
309-740-4033 tom@collateralbase.com
Zabi Page

USDA Hemp Memo

USDA HEMP Memo - Cikakken rubutu

Saurari Potcast, ko kallonta a sama.

Da ke ƙasa akwai cikakken USDA Hemp Memo:

***

UniBayanan Ma'aikatar Aikin Gonalture

Ofishin the Babbar Jagora

Washington D.C.

2025 0-1400

GAGARAURALCOUNSEL

Bari 28, 2019

MAGANAR

SAURARA:

KYAUTATA GUDA UKU SIFFOFIN SARA

A ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, Shugaba Trnmp.s ya sanya hannu a cikin dokar Dokar Inganta Noma ta shekarar 2018, Buga. L. 115-334 (Lissafin Noma na 2018). Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018 ta samar da izinin doka ta hemp don duk dalilai a cikin sigogi da aka shimfiɗa a cikin ka'idodin.

Ofishin Mai ba da shawara (OGC) ya ba da ra'ayi na doka don haɗa tambayoyin da suka shafi sev. tarkace daga abubuwanda suka danganta da kudirin dokar Noma ta shekarar 2018, gami da: wani bangare na-karfin masana'antun sarrafa hemp a masana'antar Aikin Gona ta shekarar (2014 Farm Bill) (Sashe na 7605); wani gyara ga Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946 don ba da izini ga jihohi da kabilun Indiya don tsara samar da hemp ko bi tsarin Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona (USDA) da ke tsara samar da hemp (Sashe na 10113); samar da ingantaccen tsari na tabbatar da wadatar kogin hemp a cikin kasuwanci (Sashe na 10114); da kuma cire hemp daga Dokar Abin da Aka Kula (Kashi na 12619).

Mabuɗin ƙarshe na ra'ayin shari'a na OGC sune masu zuwa:

  1. Har zuwa lokacin da aka aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta 2018 a kan Disamba 20, 2018, an cire hemp daga jadawalin I na Dokar Abubuwan Kula da Abin da ba shi da amfani.
  2. Bayan USDA ta buga ƙa'idodin aiwatar da sabon tanadin samar da hemp na Dokar Fa2018m na Fa1m na shekarar 1946 da ke kunshe a cikin Dokar Kasuwancin Noman na 01, Statesasashe da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amalar wucewa ba ko aika jigilar hemp bisa doka da oda a ƙarƙashin Tsarin Jiha ko alabila ko a karkashin lasisi wanda aka bayar a karkashin USDA
  3. Hakanan jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amala tsakanin sufuri ko jigilar hemp bisa doka ba a ƙarƙashin Farm ɗin 2014
  4. Mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya wanda ya shafi abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin dokar hanawa na shekaru 10 kan samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kasuwancin Noma ta exceptionasarin banbanci ya shafi mutumin da ya haɓaka hemp a ƙarƙashin Dokar Farm ta Faris ta 2014 kafin Disamba 20, 2018, kuma wanda hukuncin ya faru tun kafin wannan ranar.

KYAUTA Mayu 28, 2019

Shafi2

Tare da aiwatar da Dokar Farm Bill na 2018, hemp na iya haɓaka kawai (I) tare da ingantacciyar lasisin da USDA ta ba da, (2) ƙarƙashin shirin USDA wanda aka amince da shi ko alabilar Tribal, ko (3) a ƙarƙashin ikon sarrafa masana'antar hem matatar jirgin sama ta Farm Bill 2014 . Wancan iko na matukan jirgi zai ƙare shekara guda bayan USDA ta ƙaddamar da shirin don bayar da lasisin USDA a ƙarƙashin tanadin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018.

Yana da mahimmanci ga jama'a su gane cewa Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta kiyaye ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da suka tsara samar na hemp da suka fi tsauri fiye da Dokar Tarayya. Don haka, yayin da Jiha ko Indianabila ba za su iya jigilar jigilar hemp ta hanyar wannan jihar ko ƙabilar teRRitory ba, ana iya ci gaba da aiwatar da dokokin jihar ko kabilanci waɗanda ke haɓaka haɓaka hemp a cikin wannan Jiha ko ƙabilar teRRitory.

Hakanan yana da mahimmanci a jaddada cewa Dokar Farm ta 2018 ba ta tasiri ko canza ikon Sakataren Kiwan lafiya da Ayyukan Jama'a ko Kwamishinan Abinci da Magunguna don tsara hemp a ƙarƙashin dokokin Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna ta Amurka (FDA).

USDA na tsammanin samar da ka'idojin aiwatar da sabbin hukumomin samar da hemp a shekarar 2019.

Ma'aikatar Aikin Noma na Amurka

Ofishin Babban Mai ba da shawara

Washington D.C.

20250-1400

STEPHEN ER VADEN

KARATUN LITTAFIN

Bari 28, 2019

LABARI DON SON SON YANZU KYAUTA NA DAN ADAM

SAURARA:

BAYANIN HUKUNCIN SAUKI CIKIN KYAUTA YANCIN HANKALIN MAGANAR ADDU'A NA 2018 JAWACIN HEMP

Wannan takarda ta samar da ra'ayina na na doka akan dogayen tanade na dokar inganta aikin Noma na shekarar 1 ("Asusun Noma na 2018"), Pu_b. L A'a 2018-115, game da hemp.

Kamar yadda aka yi bayani a kasa, wannan takardar ta kawo karshen follQwing:

  1. Tun lokacin da aka kafa dokar Fam2018 na 1 a ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, an cire cire hemp daga jadawalin dokar Dokar Abubuwan Kulawa ("CSA") kuma ba shi da wata ma'anar Hemp da aka sarrafa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Fa1m ta 2018 don haɗa kowane cannabis shuka, ko wani abu daga ciki, wanda ya ƙunshi sama da kashi 1 na delta-0.3 tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) tushen bushewa-mai nauyi.
  2. Bayan Rashin Tsarin Noma ("USDA" ko "Depa1tment") ya buga ƙa'idodin aiwatar da tanadin samar da hemp na Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018 da ke kunshe cikin sashin layi na G na Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946 (“AMA; '), Statesasashe da kabilun Indiya na iya ba ta hana zirga-zirgar zirga-zirgar jiragen ruwa ko jigilar hemp da doka ta samar a karkashin shirin Jiha ko Kabilar ko a karkashin lasisi da aka bayar a Sashen Saka
  3. Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amala tsakanin sufuri ko jigilar hemp bisa doka ba a karkashin Dokar Aikin Gona ta shekarar2014 (“2014 Farm Bill”).
  4. A mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya wanda ya shafi abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin dokar hanawa na shekaru 10 akan samar da hemp ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA. Ban da wannan ya shafi mutumin da ya yi haɓaka ta halal a karkashin Dokar Frum na shekarar 2014 kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, wanda kuma hukuncinsa ya kasance tun kafin wannan ranar.

Wannan ambaton ya kuma ba da fifikon mahimman fannoni biyu na tanadin Dokar Farm ta 2018 da ta shafi hemp. Da farko, Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da izinin jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da suka tsara samar (amma ba ma'amalar sufuri ko jigilar kaya ba) na hemp waɗanda suka fi ƙarfin dokar Tarayya. Misali, Dokar Jiha ta hana haɓaka ko haɓakar hemp na iya ci gaba da aiwatar dashi a waccan jihar. Na biyu, Dokar Gona ta Farfa ta 2018 ba ta tasiri ko canza ikon Sakataren Kiwan lafiya da Ayyukan Jama'a ko Kwamishinan Abinci da Magunguna a ƙarƙashin Dokokin Gudanar da Abinci da Magunguna na Amurka.

  1. TARIHI

Th62018 Farm Bill, Buga. L. A. 115-334, ya sanya ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, ya hada da tanadi da yawa da suka shafi hemp.1 Wannan ra'ayoyin na shari'a ya mayar da hankali ne a kan sassan 7605, 10113, 10114, da 12619, an taƙaita a ƙasa.

  • sashe 7605 yana gyara sashe na 7606 na Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014 (7 USC § 5940), wanda ke ba da izinin cibiyoyin manyan makarantu ko kuma ayyukan ɓarnatarwa na jihohi don haɓaka ko bunkasa hemp na masana'antu a ƙarƙashin wasu yanayi-wato, idan ya girma ko kuma noma shi don dalilai na bincike a cikin Jiha wanda ya ba da izinin samar da hemp. Daga cikin wadansu abubuwa, sashe na 7605 yana karewa 2014 Farm Bill 7606 11 don buƙatar Sakataren Noma (“Sakatare”) don gudanar da nazarin waɗannan binciken hemp na bincike-bincike kuma gabatar da rahoto ga Majalisa. Sashi na 7605 ya maimaita 2014 Frum Bill§ 7606, mai tasiri shekara guda bayan ranar da Sakataren ya kafa tsarin a ƙarƙashin sashe na 297C na 2
  • sashe 10113 aJ11ends AMA ta ƙara sabon juzu'I na G (sassan 297A zuwa 297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) da suka shafi samar da hemp. A karkashin wannan sabuwar hukuma, wata jiha ko wata kabila ta Indiya wacce ke son samun ikon kafa doka ta farko game da samar da hemp a waccan Jiha ko yankin wannan kabilar ta Indiya na iya gabatar da ita, don yardar Sakatariyar, shirin da ya shafi lura da tsarin irin wannan. hemp samarwa .. Dubi AMA § 297B. Ga Jihohi ko kabilun Indiya wadanda ba su da tsare-tsaren amincewa, an umarci Sakatare ya tsayar da shirin na Ma'aikatar game da sa ido da ka'idodin samar da hemp a yankunan. Dubi AMA§ 297C. Da

1 Fayil na Fann 2014 ya bayyana “Hemp masana'antu” kamar "shuka cannabis yau da L. da kowane ɓangare na irin wannan shuka, ko girma ko a'a, tare da ƙwaƙwalwar tta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol bai wuce kashi 0.3 akan bushewar nauyi ba." 7 USC § 5940 (a) (2). Lissafin Fann na 2018 ya kara sabon tsari, dan bambanta daban na ”hemp” a sashi na 297A na AMA, wanda aka ɓoye a matsayin “tsirowar Cannabis yau da L. da kowane irin tsiro na wannan shuka, gami da zuriyarta da dukkanin abubuwan da aka samo, ruwan 'ya'yan itace, cannabinoids, isomers, acid, salts, da gishirin isomers, koda girma ko a'a , tare da ƙididdigar delta-9 tetrahydrocrumabinol ba fiye da kashi 0.3 akan dJy mai nauyi ba. ” 7 USC

  • 16390 (1). Dukkanin ma'anar biyu suna buƙatar taro na THC wanda bai wuce 0.3 kashi don Cannabis sativa L. shuka da za a yi la'akari da hemp gaban marijuana. Don dalilan wannan ra'ayi na doka, Ina amfani da sharuɗɗan “Hemp” da kuma “Hemp masana'antu” musayarwa.

2 Rahoton Taron wanda ya biyo tare da Fann lissafin 2018 Fann ya bayyana sakamakon maimaitawar kamar haka: “Tsarin yana kuma maimaita shirye-shiryen binciken hemp na shekara guda bayan Sakatare ya buga ƙa'idar ƙarshe don ba da izini ga masana'antar kasuwanci ta hemp kamar yadda aka bayar a sashi 297C na [AMA]. ” HR REP. A'a 115-1072, a 699 (2018). · ·

Har ila yau, ana bukatar sakatare don yada ƙa'idodi da jagororin aiwatar da taken

  1. Dubi AMA § 297D. Sabuwar ikon kuma tana ba da ma'anar (duba AMA § 297A) da kuma izinin abubuwan da suka dace (duba AMA § 297E).
  • sashe 10114 (7 UC § 16390 bayanin kula) wani tanadi ne mai ɗaukar ra'ayi wanda ke nuna cewa babu abin da ke cikin taken X na Dokar Farm ta 2018 da ta hana kasuwancin ma'amala ko kayayyakin hemp. Sashe na 10114 kuma ya ba da cewa Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su haramta wucewar safarar kayayyaki ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko kayayyakin hemp ba daidai da ƙasan G ta hanyar Jiha ko teITitory na kabilar Indiya.
  • sashe 12619 yana inganta CSA don ware hemp daga fassarar CSA na mariju Sashe na 1 619 kuma ya ƙare daCSAtoexclude THC a hemp daga Jadawalin I.3 \ ::

A aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018, Majalisa ta ba da izinin samar da hemp don duk dalilai a cikin sigogin doka amma an ba shi ikon Amurka da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da wasu tsauraran dokoki da ke tsara samar da hemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Tun daga aiwatar da Dokar Fa2018m ta shekarar 1 a ranar 20 ga Disamba120181 An cire Hemp daga Jadawalin I na Abubuwan da Aka Kula da Abubuwan da ke Kula da shi kuma Bai Tsaya Tsayayyar Abin da Aka Gudanar ba.

CSA § 102 (6) ma'anar. "Abin sarrafawa" don ma'ana "magani ko wani abu, ko mai gabatarwa nan da nan, wanda aka haɗa a cikin jadawalin I, II, IIl, .JV, ko V wani sashi na B wannan taken. . . . ” 21 USC § 802 (6). Marijuana4 abu ne mai sarrafawa wanda aka jera a jadawalin I na CSA. Dubi CSA § 202 (c) (10), jadawalin I (21 USC § 812 (c), Jadawalin I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Lissafin Farm na 2018 ya inganta CSA ta hanyoyi biyu.

  • Na farko, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (a) gyara CSA fassarar fassarar marijuana don ware h mp. Kafin aiwatar da Dokar Fam2018 ta 1, CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) ya bayyana marijuana kamar haka:
  • Kalmar 'marihuana' na nufin dukkanin sassan shuka Cannabis sativa L., ko girma ko a'a; tsaba daga gare ta; da resin cirewa daga kowane pa1t na wannan shuka; kuma kowane fili, tsirarwa, gishiri, abubuwan da aka kirkira, cakuda, ko shirye-shiryen irin wannan shuka, zuriyarta ko res irin wannan tetm ɗin ba ya haɗa da ƙwayoyin irin wannan tsiron, fiber da aka samarwa daga irin wannan ɓoyayyen, man ko kuma cake ɗin da aka yi daskarar da irin wannan shuka. , duk wani fili, tsirarwa, gishiri, madogara, cakuda, ko shiri na s ch masu girma (sai dai resin da aka fitar daga ciki), fiber, man, ko cake,

3 Don backgroundarin bayanin baya · akan samar da hemp kafin aiwatar da 2018 Fann Bi.II, gani Sabis na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, "Hemp a matsayin kayan aikin gona" (RL32725) (sabunta Yuli 9, 2018), availiya at https: // crsreports.majalisa.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Wannan ra'ayin yana amfani da haruffan haruffan "marijuana" sai lokacin da aka ambaci CSA, wanda ke amfani da kalmar "marihuana".

ko ƙwayar haifuwa irin wannan shuka wanda ba zai iya iya yin shuka ba.

Kamar yadda aka gyara ta da Asusun Farm na 2018, ma'anar CSA na marijuana yanzu tana karanta:

  • Magana game da yanki (B); Kalmar 'marihuana' na nufin dukkanin sassan tsire-tsire na Cannabis sativa , ko girma ko ba; tsaba daga gare ta; da resin cirewa daga kowane bangare na irin wannan shuka; kuma kowane fili, kerawa, gishirin, asalinsu, cakuda, ko shiri irin wannan shuka, da tsaba ko guduro.
  • Kalmar 'marihuana' bata ƙunshi ba
  • hemp, kamar yadda aka ayyana a sashi na 297A na Dokar Siyar da Noma ta shekarar 1946; ko

8.

  • thean itacen da ya manyanta irin wannan tsiron, fiber wanda aka samarwa daga irin waɗannan ;an itacen; mai ko cake ɗin da aka yi daga

irin wannan shuka, kowane fili, tsirarwa, gishiri, tushen, cakuda, ko shiri irin wannan daskararren itaciya (sai dai resin exn · hù daga ciki), fiber, man, ko cuku, ko ƙwayar irin wannan tsiron da bazai iya shuka ba.

  • Na biyu, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (b) gyara CSA don ware THC a cikin hemp daga kalmar "tetrahydrocannabinols" a cikin jadawalin Kamar yadda aka gyara ta 2018 Farm Bill, CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), jadawalin I (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), jadawalin I) yanzu ya karanta:

Tetrahydrocannabinols, ban da tetrahydrocannabinols in hemp (kamar yadda aka ayyana Karkashin sashi

297A na Dokar Siyar da Noma ta shekarar 1946).

Ta hanyar inganta ma'anar marijuana don ware hemp kamar yadda aka ayyana a AMA § 297A, Majalisa ta cire hemp daga jadawalin I kuma cire shi gaba ɗaya daga CSA. A takaice dai, hemp ba abu bane mai sarrafawa. Hakanan, ta hanyar gyara jadawalin zan ware THC a hemp, Majalisa ta kuma cire THC a hemp daga CSA.

Yana da mahimmanci a san cewa wannan katsewar hemp (da THC a hemp) suna aiwatar da kansu. Kodayake dole ne a sabunta ka'idojin aiwatar da CSA don yin daidai da ƙididdigar dokar Farm ta 2018 ga CSA, ba za a buga fitowar waɗancan ƙa'idodin ka'idojin ba ko kuma wani aiki da ya wajaba don aiwatar da wannan cirewar.

Na magance nan manyan maganganu guda biyu zuwa ra'ayi cewa ƙaddamar da hemp shine aiwatar da aikin kai. Rashin yarda na farko shine, saboda ba a buga ƙa'idodi ba a ƙarƙashin CSA

  • 201, canje-canje na majalisa don tsara jituwa na game da hemp ba shi da tasiri. Wannan hani ba shi da inganci.

Hanya na yau da kullun don gyara jadawalin CSA shine ta hanyar lalacewa. A karkashin CSA

  • 201 (a), Babban Ministan Shari'a "na iya yin hakan" ta hanyar kara, cire daga ko canzawa tsakanin jadawalin, duk wasu magunguna ko wasu abubuwan yayin aiwatar da wasu binciken. 21 USC
  • 81l (a). Koyaya, majalisa kuma za a iya gyara ta kai tsaye ta Majalisa ta hanyar canje-canje ga doka; kuma Majalisa tayi hakan sau da yawa.5 ·

'Duba, misali, Buga. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (jadawalin gyare-gyare Ina ƙara da wakilan cannabimimetic); Buga. L. 101-647,

  • 1902 (a) (jadawalin gyaran rashin lafiya don ƙara magungunan anabolic steroids).

Obayan adawa na biyu shine, saboda canje-canje na majalisa don tsara jadawalin I game da hemp bai bayyana ba a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11, cirewar ba tukuna. Wannan ƙin yarda ba shi da inganci.

Yana da fa'ida cewa ƙa'idodin ƙa'idoji na ƙaho. Duba Nat '/ Tsarin Iyali & Maimaitawa. Kayan kiwon lafiya, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) ("[A] ingantaccen ƙa'idar aiki koyaushe tana gudana akan dokar sasantawa [.]"). Majalisa ta kafa jadawalin CSA guda biyar a cikin ka’ida, yayin da suke samar da "tsarin uch na farko zai kunshi abubuwan da aka lissafa a wannan sashin." 21

USC § 812 (a) .6 Majalisar ta kara da cewa "[t] wanda ya tsara wannan sashin za a sabunta shi kuma a sake buga shi a kan rabin shekara tsakanin shekaru biyu daga shekara daya bayan Oktoba 27, 1970, kuma za a sabunta shi. kuma an sake buga shi zuwa shekara-shekara bayan hakan. ” 21 USC § 812 (a). Abubuwan da ake buƙata don sabuntawa da sake fasalin jadawalin, duk da haka, ba wani abu bane wanda ake bukata kafin ingancin jadawalin “wanda [ka'idodi] ya kafa.” Id. A wasu

kalmomi, inda Majalisa da kanta ke gyara jadawalin don ƙara ko cire wani abu mai sarrafawa, ƙari ko cire wancan abun da ke sarrafawa yana tasiri nan da nan lokacin aiwatarwa (ba tare da wani sauran ingantaccen kwanan wata a cikin dokokin ba); ƙarirsa ko cirewa daga jadawalin ba dogaro da lalata ba.7

Don ba da misali, Majalisa ta gyara CSA a cikin 2012 don ƙara "wakilai na cannabimimetic" don jadawalin I.

An yi wannan gyaran a matsayin wani ɓangare na Dokar Yarjejeniyar Haramtattun Magunguna na shekarar2012 (Buga.

  1. 112-144, taken XI, taken D), wanda aka sanya hannu a cikin doka a ranar 9 ga Yuli, 2012. Kusan watanni shida bayan haka, Hukumar Gudanar da Magunguna ("DEA") ta buga wata doka ta ƙarshe da ta kafa ka'idojin magunguna don masu maganin cannabimimetic da aka kara jadawalin Ni ta hanyar Majalisa da yin wasu canje-canje don daidaitawa kamar yadda aka tsara a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11. Dubi 78 Fed. Reg. 664 (Janairu 4, 2013). A cikin bayanin dalilin da ya sa sanarwa-da-sharhi game da bata gari ba lallai bane, DEA ta lura da hakan
    • “Sanya wadannan abubuwan 26 a cikin Jadawalin I An riga an fara aiki tun daga 9 ga Yuli, " Id. a 665 (an kara jaddadawa). A takaice dai, canje-canje kan dokokin majalisa don tsara lokacin na kasance mai tasiri nan da nan bayan aiwatar da doka. Tunanin waɗancan canje-canjen a cikin 1 CFR § 21, kodayake 1308.11 USC § 21 (a) sun buƙaci aiwatar da waɗancan canje-canje don jadawalin I.

Saboda haka, aiwatar da Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta kammala cire hemp (kuma THC in

hemp8 daga CSA. Gudanar da gyare-gyare zuwa 21 CFR § 1308.11, yayin da ake buƙata azaman pm

6 “Marihuana” da “Tetrahydrocannabinols” duka an haɗa su a cikin jadawalin farko da Na kafa ta a 1970.

7 CJ Amurka v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, 547 (10 ga Nuwamba 1977) ("[F] rashin lafiya don buga jadawalin 'sabunta' 'kamar yadda Sashe na 812 ya bukata (a) ba shi da tasiri a kan ingancin waɗannan abubuwan da aka lissafta cikin jadawalin guda biyar."); Amurka v. Monroe, 408 F. Wadata. 270,274 (ND Cal. 1976) (“Saboda haka, yayin da sashi na 812 (a) a fili ya ba da umarni ga jadawalin abubuwan sarrafawa da za a sake bugawa, it a bayyane yake cewa Majalisa ba ta da niyyar jumhuriya ta yi aiki a Tuno jadawalin, wanda idan aka yi shi ba daidai ba zai sa wadancan jadawalin su koma baya kuma ya kare …………………………………………………………… .. [T] ya

Shawarwarin cewa jadawalin, da zarar an sabunta shi, 'a sake yada shi' ya kasance ne kawai don a samar da jeri guda daya wanda zai kasance daidai da abubuwan da dokar ta tanada a halin yanzu …………………………………… ……………………………………………… .. “).

8 Jadawalin I, kamar yadda aka buga a 21 CFR § 1308.11, ya haɗa da ma'anar "tetrahydrocannabinols" a sakin layi (d) (3I) wanda bai bayyana ba a cikin CSA. Duk da kasancewar wannan hukuncin a cikin dokokin cw · haya, I

na ci gaba da ɗaukar nauyinDEDEA don buga jadawalin da aka sabunta, ba lallai ba ne don aiwatar da sauye-sauyen Farm na 2018 zuwa jadawalin I.9 ·

B. Bayan Ma'aikatar Aikin Noma ta wallafa Ima'idoji Na aiwatar da Ka'idodin samar da Hemp na Dokar Farm ta 2018 da aka samu a cikin Subtitle G na Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946, Jihohi da Indianan Indiya Ba za su iya hana Tsarin Shigi da Shige da Fice ba ko Jigilar Hemp da aka ba da Dokar a ƙarƙashin Jiha ko Kabilar Tsara ko A karkashin lasisin da Aka bayar karkashin Shirin Ma'aikatar.

AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) yana ba da jagorancin Sakatare don fitar da ƙa'idodi da jagororin "a cikin hanzari" don aiwatar da taken G na AMA. 7 USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Waɗannan ƙa'idodin za su magance amincewa da tsare-tsaren Jiha da na alabi'a a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297B da kuma bayar da lasisi ƙarƙashin shirin Ma'aikata a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297C. Kamar yadda aka yi bayani a kasa, da zarar an buga wadannan ka'idoji, Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana zirga-zirga ko jigilar hemp ba (gami da samfuran hemp) da aka tsara bisa ga amincewar alasar ko Tsarin Tribabi'a ko samarwa a karkashin lasisi da aka bayar ƙarƙashin shirin Ma'aikatar.

Ana magana da sufuri na hemp a cikin 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114.10 Sashi (a) yana ba da:

  • RULE NA-Babu wani abu a cikin wannan taken ko kuma gyara da aka yi wa wannan lakabin ya haramta kasuwancin tsakiyar hemp (kamar yadda aka ayyana a sashi na 297A na Dokar Kasuwancin Noma na 1946 (kamar yadda aka haɗa da sashi na 10113)) ko samfuran hemp.

7 USC § 16390 bayanin kula. Wannan tanadi ya faɗi cewa babu komai a cikin taken X na Fann Fan 2018

Ina da ra'ayin cewa THC a hemp an cire shi daga THC a matsayin jadawalin da zan cona · olled abu a ƙarƙashin CSA ta hanyar gyaran dokar Farm na 2018.

9 Jadawalin I, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.11, ya hada da jerin keɓaɓɓen "cirewar marihuana" a sakin layi

(d) (58). Marijuana cirewa ba a bayyana cikin jadawalin Ni a cikin ƙa'idar saboda an ƙara shi bayan! 970 ta hanyar ƙa'ida a karkashin CSA § 201. Kalmar "marihuana cire" an ayyana shi a cikin tsari azaman "cirewar da ke ɗauke da ɗaya ko ƙari cannabinoids wanda aka samo daga kowane tsirrai na halittar Cannabis, banda resin da aka raba (shin danye ko purHied) da aka samo daga tsire. ” Dokar Gona ta 2018 ta gyara ma'anar "marihuana" don ware hemp, amma saboda ma'anar ka'idar "marihuana cire" a cikin jadawalin ban yi amfani da kalmomin "marihuana" ko "teb · ahydrocannabinols" don ayyana tenn, wata tambaya ta taso ko har yanzu cire hemp shine dauke da jerawa azaman jadawalin Na sarrafa abu. Yayin da ba a ƙara magana da batun ba a wannan ra'ayin, Ina tsammanin cewa fassarar ka'idar "marihuana" tana da ma'anar kawar da hemp daga jadawalin I, kuma wannan yana nuna irin wannan a cikin 21 CFR § 1308.1I (d) (58) zai zama sassauƙa ne kawai. · ·

10 Hakanan ana magance sufuri a cikin ayyukan da suka dace na shekara-shekara, wanda ke maimaita kudaden da Tarayyar ta keɓe daga amfani dashi don hana jujjuyawar hemp. Koyaya, waɗancan tanadin suna iyakance saboda su magance magance hemp kawai a ƙarƙashin ikon Fann Bill 2014, kuma suna magance kawai tarayya ayyukan gwamnati. Wannan shine, yayin da tanadin ya haramtawa 'yan wasan Tarayya damar toshe hanyar sufurin da ake kira “2014 Farm Bill hemp, ”ba su hana aiwatar da ayyukan hukuma ba in game da wannan Dubi Noma, Kiran karkara, Abinci da Magunguna Dokar Gudanarwa, da Tsarin Kayan Aiki na Tsarin Mulki, 2019, Buga. L. 116-6, div. B, § 728 (haramtawa kuɗin da wannan Dokar ta tanada ko kuma wani dokar don amfani da shi don sabawa dokar2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ko kuma “ga prohibit da transportation1 aiki, sale, or use of masana'antul hemp, or iris of ruwan 'ya'yan itaceh shuka, cewa is girma or horar da shi daidai da [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], a ciki ko wajen theasar da hemp masana'antu ke girma ko horar da ”). Ka kuma duba Kasuwanci, Adalci, Kimiyya, da kuma Hadin gwiwar Ma'aikatar Tsarin Mulki, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, div. C, § 536 (“Ba za a iya amfani da kuɗin daga wannan kuɗin da wannan Dokar ta sabawa da [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] ta Ma'aikatar Shari'a ko Hukumar Gudanar da Magunguna ba.”).

ya hana ma'amala da kewayon hemp. Koyaya, wannan tanadi, tsayawa shi kaɗai, ba shi da tasirin ƙaddamar da zirga-zirgar hemp a cikin Jihohi ko yankunan Tribal inda aka haramta irin wannan sufuri a ƙarƙashin dokar ƙasa ko ta Tribal.

Sean sashin yanki (b) koyaya, ya haramta jihohi da kabilun Indiya musamman game da jigilar zirga-zirgar hemp ta hanyar wannan jihar ko ƙabilar Tribal. Sashi (b) yana bayarwa

  • 1ilkertaccen HEMP DA HEMP -Na jihar ko Indiya Kuri'a zata haramta transp011ation ko jigilar hemp ko matakan hemp in daidai da taken G na Dokar Siyayya ta Noma ta 1946 (kamar yadda aka haɗa shi da sashi na 10113) ta hanyar Jiha ko kundin goma na Tarihin Indiya, kamar yadda ya dace.

7 USC § 16390 bayanin kula. A takaice, wannan tanadi yana aiwatar da dokar jihar har zuwa irin dokar wannan Jiha

ya hana transst011ation na jigilar kaya ko jigilar hemp da aka samar daidai da taken G na AMA.

Dangane da batun dokar kundin tsarin mulki, “[t] ya Cancantar Magana ya ba da kyakkyawan doka cewa dokar tarayya 'ita ce mafi girman Dokar ƙasa; kuma alƙalai a cikin kowace jiha za a daure su, kowane abu a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki ko Dokokin wani wanda ya saɓa zuwa Sabanin ya kasance duk da haka…. ' A karkashin wannan ka'ida, Majalisa tana da ikon zartar da doka [S]. Arizona v. Amurka, 567

US 387, 398-99 (2012) (yana ambata fasahar US art. VI, cl 2). "A karkashin koyarwar dokar tarayya, wata dokar tarayya ta zartar ko ta dakatar da dokar da ba ta dace ba. Amurka v. Zadeh, 820 FJd 746, 751 (5th Cir. 2016).

Kotunan tarayya sun amince da rukunin manyan nau'ukan guda uku: (1) nuna fifiko (inda 'majalisa ke jan (kwacewa' ') ikon ta daga Jihohi ta hanyar "bayar da sanarwar share fage"); 11 (2) preemption filin (inda Jihohi “an hana su yin tsari gudanarwa a fagen da majalisar dokoki, aiki a cikin madaidaicinta mai iko, ya yanke shawarar dole ne a kayyade ta ta hanyar shugabancinta na musamman ”);12 da kuma rigakafin rikici (inda ake aiwatar da dokokin jihohi lokacin da suka sabawa dokar Tarayya, wanda ya hada da yanayi "inda 'bin dokokin tarayya da [S] dokar kasa abu ne da ba zai yuwu ba a zahiri'" ko kuma yanayi "inda aka kalubalanci dokar ta S ' tsaye ne a matsayin cikas ga aiwatarwa da aiwatar da cikakkun manufofi da kuma manufofin Majalisa ”').13 Arizona, 567 US a 399-400 (bayanan da aka tsallake); ga kuma Zadeh, 820 F.3d a 751.

11 Duba, misali, 7 USC § 1639i (b) ("(b) Tsarin mulkin Tarayya.-Babu Jiha ko yanki na yanki na Gwamnati na iya kai tsaye ko a kaikaice a ƙarƙashin kowane iko ko ci gaba da tasiri kamar kowane abinci ko iri a cikin kasuwancin alaƙa duk wani abin da ya shafi alamomin alamar ko abinci (haɗe da abincin da aka ci a gidan abinci ko makamancin wannan) ko ƙwararriyar injiniyan ɗan adam ne (wanda ya haɗa da waɗannan sharuɗɗa masu kama da abin da aka ƙaddara ta Sakataren Aikin Gona) ko an ci gaba ko kuma samar da shi ta amfani da injinan kwayoyin, gami da duk wani bukata don da'awar cewa abinci ko iri ne ko kuma yana dauke da sinadaran da aka bunkasa ko kuma samar da su ta hanyar amfani da injin. ").

12 Duba, misali, Pac. Gas & Elec. Co. v. Jihar Energy Res. Kiyayewa & Dev. Comm 'n, 461 US 190,212 (([T) shi gwamnatin tarayya ta mamaye duk abin da ya shafi batun tsaron makaman nukiliya, in banda iyakataccen ikon da aka bayyane ga lambobin [S].).

  • n Duba, misali, 21 USC 903 ("Ba a samar da wannan kundin tsarin mulki kamar yadda yake nuna niyya a wani bangare na Majalisa ta mamaye filin da wannan tanadin yake aiki, gami da hukunce-hukuncen aikata laifi, ga wariyar duk wata doka ta jihohi a kan batun batun wanda zai in ba haka ba ya kasance a cikin ikon hukuma, sai dai in akwai

Sashe na 10114 (b) na Fann Bill na 2018 ya gamsar da ma'anar rikice-rikice saboda dokar ƙasa ta hana haɗakar sufuri ko jigilar hemp ko samfuran hemp da aka samar daidai da taken G na AMA zai kasance cikin rikici kai tsaye da sashe 10114 (b), wanda ya ba da wata hukuma da za ta haramta irin wannan aiki.14 Saboda haka, kowace majalisar dokoki ta tsara wannan dokar. Sakamakon iri ɗaya ya shafi kabilun Indiya.15

A takaice, da zarar an buga ƙa'idodin aiwatar da aiwatarwa, Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya haramta jigilar hemp bisa ga doka ba a ƙarƙashin shirin da aka amince da shi a cikin jihar ko tsarin ƙabila ko a karkashin lasisi da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin shirin Ma'aikatar.

C. Lungiyoyin Baƙi da Maywararrun Indiya Ba za su iya hana Tsarin Jiragen Sama ko Jirgin Hemp da doka ta haifar a ƙarƙashin Dokar Aikin gona na 2014 ba.

Saboda 2018 Fmm Bill ba nan da nan sake maimaita ikon hemp matukin jirgi a cikin 2014 Farm Bill 7606 2018 - kuma saboda wallafa fitina da ke aiwatar da tanadin samar da hemp na 2019 Fann Bill ba zai yuwu ba sai daga baya a cikin 2014 - tambayar ita ce ko Amurka. kuma an haramta kabilun Indiya daga toshe hanyoyin wucewa ko jigilar hemp (gami da samfuran hemp) da bin doka da oda a ƙarƙashin Dokar Fmm ta 1946. Amsar tana dogara da ma'anar jimlar "daidai da lafazin ƙasa na G na Kasuwancin NomaActof2018 ″ in10114FmmBill § 7 (b) (1639U.SC § 297onote). Hemp ne kawai aka samar daidai da jigidar sub na G an rufe shi ta hanyar preemption wanda aka tattauna a sama. Kamar yadda aka yi bayani a kasa, ra'ayina ne cewa amsar wannan tambayar eh ce, ta hanyar AMA § XNUMXB (f).

AMA§ 297B (f) ya bayyana tasirin doka na tanade-tanaden da ke ba jihohin da kabilun Indiya damar haɓaka tsare-tsaren don yin amfani da madaidaicin ikon samar da hemp a cikin waccan Jiha ko yanki na kabilar Indiya. Musamman, sashe na 297B (f) yana ba da:

(f) MAFARKI.-Babu wani abu a wannan sashin da ya haramta samar da hemp a cikin Jiha ko ka’idar aikin kabilar Indiya-

(!) wanda ba a yarda da shirin Jiha ko Tribal ba a ƙarƙashin wannan sashin, idan samar da hemp ya kasance daidai da sashi na 297C ko wasu dokokin Tarayya (gami da ƙa'idodi); da

(2) idan jihar ko kabilar Indiya ba ta hana fitar da hemp ba.

za a sami sabani mai kyau tsakanin wannan samar da wannan ma'aikatar da dokar jihar don kada mutanen biyu su hada kai. ”).

14 A madadin haka, sashi na 10114 (b) ana iya ɗaukar shi don bayar da iznin rage ƙarfi saboda ƙa'idar ƙa'idar ta janye karfin ikon jihar ta hana zirga-zirga ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko samfurori ta hanyar Jiha.

15 AMA§ 297B (a) (3) ya ƙunshi tanadi na rigakafin preemption wanda ke nuna cewa babu wani abu in§ 297B (a) “preempts ko iyakance duk wata doka ta wata kabila ta Indiya ko ta Indiya” da ke haɓakar samar da hemp ”kuma“ ya fi ƙarfin [ƙa'idodin ƙasa] G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Koyaya, waccan anti-preemption tanada iyaka ga samar of hemp - ba da sufuri ko jigilar hemp- don haka ba ya rikici da 2018 Farm Bill§ IOI14 (b).

7 USC § 1639p (f) (an kara jaddadawa).

Wannan tanadi ya ba da damar samar da hemp a cikin Yankin ko yankin yanki wanda jihohi ko ƙabilar ba su da shirin amincewa a ƙarƙashin AMA § 297B. Wannan tanadi ya yarda cewa, a cikin irin wannan yanayin, samar da hemp a cikin waccan Jiha ko taTa'ilin kabila har yanzu ana iya yarda da shi idan an samar da shi ko dai daidai da tsarin Sashin a karkashin AMA § 297C or daidai da sauran dokokin Tarayya, kuma Jiha ko kabila ba ta hana yin samarwa ba.

Harshen bayyanawa a cikin sashin layi na G na AMA, kamar yadda lissafin Farm na 2018 ya kara, don haka a sarari yana ɗaukar yanayin shimfidar wuri wanda ba a samar da shi ƙarƙashin shirin da aka amince da shi na 297B kuma ba a ƙarƙashin lasisi da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin shirin na 297C na Ma'aikatar, amma har yanzu da doka ta samar a karkashin

"Sauran dokokin Tarayya." Tunanina ne cewa "sauran dokokin Tarayya" sun ƙunshi Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014

  • 7606.16

A sani na, kafin aiwatar da shekarar2014 Farm Bill§ 7606, CSA ita ce kawai dokar Tarayya da ta ba da izinin samar da hemp. Tabbas, samar da hemp- a matsayin "samarwa" na jadawalin da Na sarrafa abu - an haramta shi gaba ɗaya a ƙarƙashin CSA sai dai har izuwa izini ƙarƙashin rajista ko yin watsi da CSA. Dubi 21 USC

  • § 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, da 823; 21 CFR paJt 1301 An ba (1) cire hemp a matsayin abu mai sarrafawa a ƙarƙashin CSA, (2) maimaita jinkiri na ikon 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606, da (3) aiwatar da sabon hukumomin samar da hemp a cikin fassarar G na AMA, ra'ayina ne cewa "sauran dokokin Tarayya" suna nufin tanadin dokar Noman Faris na shekarar2014
  • 7606, wanda har yanzu suna aiki. Irin wannan fassarar tana ba da sakamako nan da nan ga kalmar "sauran dokokin Tarayya." "Ka'ida ce ta ma'anar fassara wacce dole neJarillai ta bayar .maitacce, in ya yiwu, ga kowane jumla da maganar ƙa'idar aiki." Duba, misali, Loughrin v. Amurka, 573 US 351, 358 (2014) (ambaton ciki da bayanan da aka ambata). · ·

Saboda haka, karanta AMA§ 297B (f) cikin jituwa tare da 2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), idan an samar da hemp bisa doka bisa ga 2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ("sauran dokokin Tarayya"), to, ta viJtue na AMA § 297B (f), ba a hana samar da shi ba. Irin wannan hemp an samar da shi "daidai da ƙasan G," wanda ke bayani kawai a kan irin wannan yanayin, a matsayin AMA

  • 297B (f) bangare ne na juzu'i G. Dangane da haka, a ƙarƙashin 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114 (b), Jiha ko Indiya

16 Wannan Majalisa ta hango irin wannan yanayin a bayyane yake ga yaren a cikin 2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} jinkirta maimaitawar shekarar2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 har zuwa watanni 12) bayan Sakataren ya kafa tsarin 297C. Dangane da haka, wannan fassarar ba ta zama ta AMA§ 1C (c) (l) ba, wanda ya ba da: “[i] n shari'ar Stateabila ko kabilar Indiya wacce ba ta yarda da tsarin Jiha ko alabi'a a ƙarƙashin sashi na 297B ba, za ta ba za a haramtawa samar da hemp a cikin wannan Jiha ko yanki goma na wannan kabilar Indiya ba tare da lasisin da Sakatare ya bayar a karkashin sashin (b) ba. ” Ganin ba da ma'anar "ko wasu dokokin Tarayya" a cikin AMA § 297B (f) (l) - kuma gaskiyar cewa 297 Farm Bill§ 2014 har yanzu yana aiki

- zai zama karatun batanci ne na AMA §297C (c) (J) don yanke hukuncin cewa hemp ya kawo ta daidai da dokar Tarayya (2014 Fann Bill § 7606) haramun ne ba tare da lasisin daban da sakataren ya bayar ba karkashin shirin 297C. Kamar yadda com1s suka daɗe da ganewa, ka'idojin ka'idodi da ke haifar da "sakamakon da ba zai dace ba kauce wa fassarar inaltemative wanda ya yi daidai da manufar majalisa suna samuwa. ” Griffin v. Oc_eanic Yan kwangila, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

kabila bazai hana transp01iation ko jigilar abin da ake kira "2014 Farm Bill hemp" ta hanyar wannan Jiha ko yankin Tribal ba.17

Sabon cigaba

Na amince da cewa wannan yanke shawara tana cikin tashin hankali tare da yanke shawara kwanan nan a cikin wani hali a cikin gundumar Idaho, amma kuma ya yi daidai da yanke shawara kwanan nan a cikin shari'ar a cikin Kudancin Yankin Yammacin Virginia. Babu ko kotun da ta yi magana da yaren “sauran dokokin Tarayya” a cikin AMA § 297B (f) (l), wanda na samu cikakke.

In Babban Sky Scientific LLC v. 'Yan Sanda na Jihar Jdaho, Magana mai lamba 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), alkalin kotun majistare ya gano cewa jigilar kayayyaki ta OregoI1 zuwa Colorado kuma 'Yan Sanda na jihar Idaho ba za su iya zama masu samar da su ba "daidai da taken G" saboda Jihar asalinsa bai riga ya sami amincewar shirin rn1der AMA § 297B ba kuma har yanzu Sakataren bai fito da wani tsari a karkashin AMA § 297C ba.18 Alkalin kotun ya amince da dokar Oregon wacce ke ba da izinin haɓakar hemp, lura da masu shigar da karar ta yi ikirarin cewa an samar da hemp ne ta hanyar ma'aikatar gona ta Oregon wacce ta ke da lasisi (kuma, saboda haka, mai yiwuwa ne a cikin bin ka'idodin 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606).19 Kodayake, yayin musanta masu shigar da karar ga wani umarnin na farko, alkalin kotun · ya yanke hukuncin cewa, yayin aiwatar da kudirin dokar Noman ta 2018, Majalisa ta kudiri aniyar "kirkiro da ka'idoji game da samarwa da zirga-zirgar zirga-zirgar zirga-zirga na hemp don gabatarwa da dokokin tarayya, da wancan tsarin ya kamata ya kasance a cikin tsarin tarayya (ko kuma ya dace da [S] tate or [T] ribal) don samar da hemp da ke cikin Dokar Fm ta 2018. ”20 Kodayake Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2018 ta ba da izinin jigilar hemp a kan layin jihohi, alkalin kotun ya ce za a ba da kariya ga irin kasuwancin da ake samu a kan ka’idojin da aka zayyana a karkashin dokar Tsarin Farm na 11.1 Saboda haka, saboda waɗannan ƙa'idodin ba su wanzu har yanzu ba, yin amfani da hemp ɗin yana ƙarƙashin dokar Idaho da ta hana fassarar ta.

USDA ba dare ba ne a Babban Sky harka, kuma wannan ofishi bai gamsar da hukuncin alkalin alkalai ba game da jigilar hemp da doka ta samar a karkashin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014. A

17 Wannan ƙarshen alama yana da goyan baya a tarihin majalisar dokoki kuma. A cikin bayanin tasirin tallafin, babban taron taron ya ce: “Yayin da magidantan [S] da kabilun Indiya za su iyakance samarwa da sayar da kayayyakin hemp da kayayyakin hemp a cikin kan iyakokinsu, Manajojin, a Sec. 10112 [sic], sun yarda ba su ba da izinin zama [kabilanci] da kabilun Indiya don iyakance harkokin sufuri ko jigilar kayayyakin hemp ko kayayyakin hemp ta hanyar [S] ko yankin Indiya01. " HR REP. Lambar 115-1072, a 738 (2018). Musamman ma, Masu Gudanarwa suna magana da hemp gabaɗaya, ba kawai samar da hemp ba a ƙarƙashin shirin da aka ƙaddamar a ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA.

18 Duba Babban Sky, Doka ECF. # 32, Hukunce-hukuncen Memba da oda Re: Mai gabatar da kara don motsi na Farko; duba kuma Doka ECF. # 6, Hukunce-hukuncen Memba da Amincewa da Sakamako: Mai gabatar da kara na Gaggauta Motsa Jiki na Gidajewa na Gidajewa da Batun hadewa da kuma Matsayin mai gabatar da kara zuwa Bugun Sakamako (akwai a 2019 WL 438336 (Feb. 2, 2019).

19 Babban Sky, Doka ECF. # 32, a 5, 7-8.

20 Id. a 3.

21 Id. a 19-26.

musayar harshe na doka, alkalin kotun ya lura da kyakkyawan sananniyar ka'idantar ginin dokoki wanda yakamata a fassara shi ta "hanyar da za ta canza wasu ka'idoji guda ba tare da ma'ana ba, mara ma'ana, ko kuma fasikanci." 1 Amma, da alama yana ƙin hakan Jagorancin bai fassara tasirin “sauran dokokin tarayyar ba” a cikin AMA § 22B (f) ko ƙoƙarin ba da wannan yaren. Kotun Idaho ta gaza karanta dokar gaba daya kuma ba ta yi la’akari da wasu “sauran ka’idojin Tarayya” da na cimma matsaya ba. Ganin irin yanayin hukuncin alkalin kotun, na samu ra’ayinsa yana musun umarnin farko wanda ba a bayyana shi ba.297

Har ila yau, fassarar 2018 Farm Bill § 10114 na ci gaba ta wannan ra'ayin shari'a ya dace da shawarar da aka bayar a Kudancin Yankin Yammacin Virginia. A Amurka v. Mallory, Maganar lamba 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), \ Oepmtment na Justice ya shigar da kara don kama hemp da ake zargi da girma da keta hakkin CSA da kuma waje da ikon 2014 Fann Bill. A batun a wancan batun ne ya samar da wata sanarwa daga kamfanin samar da lasisi ta jihar West Virginia a karkashin shirin jirgin saman Fmm Bill§ 2014 na 7606, inda aka fitar da irin hemp daga kamfanin da ke Kentucky wanda kamfanin mallaka na Kentucky ya ba da lasisin a karkashin Dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014

  • Tsarin matukin jirgin 7606. Kotun ta dogara da hade da dokoki - da dokar Farm ta shekarar 2014, da tanade-tanade na tanadi, 24 da Dokar Farm ta 2018 - don soke umarnin farko a kan mai kare25 da kuma yin watsi da gaba daya shari’ar da gwamnatin ta yi.26 A cikin rusa umarnin farko-y , Kotu ta yanke hukunci game da wadanda ake zargin su kwashe kayayyakin hemp ta hanyar layin jihar zuwa Pennsylvania don sarrafawa da sayarwa.1

Ko da yake Mallory Kotun ba ta da hurumin da za ta magance duk wani yunƙurin da jihar ta yi na toshewa da jigilar hemp, kotun ta yi la’akari da 2018 Fmm Bill § 10114, tare da lura da cewa “a bayyane yake ba da izinin hemp, zuriyarta, da hemp, kayayyakin da ake fitarwa don jigilar su a kan layin jihar. ”28 Ra'ayin alkalin gundumar ya yi magana game da hemp da aka gabatar a ƙarƙashin 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 kuma ba hemp aka samar a karkashin tsare-tsaren Jihohi, ,abila, ko Tsararru Conclusionarshen abin da Ubangiji ya yanke Mall01y kotu ta yi daidai da fassarar maganata cewa Jihohi ba za su iya toshe jigilar hemp ba, ko

22 Id. a 21-22 (ambatawa Padash v. I.NS., 258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004). Alkalin kotun ya ci gaba da cewa;

Ka'ida ce ta tsarin dokoki wanda yakamata doka ta kasance gaba ɗaya gina cewa, idan it ba za a iya hanawa ba, babu wani jumla, jumla, ko kalma da za ta zama mafi girma, mara amfani, ko wanda bai isa a kula da shi ba. … Aikinmu ne mu bada damar, idan ya yiwu, ga kowane jumla da kalmomin dokar ta doka.

Id. a 23 (ambato na ciki da kuma ambato daga ciki).

23 Tabbas, hukuncin alkalin kotun yana cikin kara daukaka kara. Duba Babban Sky Sci. LLC v. Bennetts, Magana mai lamba 19-35138 (9th Cir.).

24 Duba sama matattarar 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', Doka ECF. # 60, Ra'ayin Member da oda, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Janairu 17, 2019).

26 Mal / na, BCF Doc. # 72, Ra'ayin Maimaitawa da oda, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, a * 3.

28 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, a * 6:

Page 12

an samar da hemp a karkashin Dokar Faim ta 2014 ko kuma karkashin shirin Jiha, Tribal, ko sashi w1der Asusun Farm na 2018. Hakanan hukuncin yanke hukunci ne na Kudancin Yankin Yammacin Gari na Virginia, kuma ba yanke hukunci bane kamar yadda yake da ra’ayin alkalin alkalami na District.29

A cikin al'amuran fassara fassarar dokoki, rubutun dokokin ke gudana. Dole ne mutum ya karanta wancan rubutun gaba ɗayansa kuma ya ba da ma'anar kalma ɗaya. Dole ne a ba da ma'anar "sauran dokokin Tarayya" ma'ana, kuma wannan harshe a fili yana nufin dokar Tarayya wacce a yanzu ta ba da izinin samar da hemp - 1 Fann Bill § 2014. Saboda haka, hemp aka samar a ƙarƙashin waccan matukin jirgi ne hemp samar daidai da subtitle G na AMA. Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya yin jigilar kaya ba ko jigilar irin wannan hemp ta hanyar wannan jihar ko kuma kabilancin. · ·

D. Lissafin Farm na shekarar 2018 ya sanya takunkumin hana samar da hemp ta wasu Felons.

Lissafin Farm na 2018 ya kara da sabon tanadi wanda ke magana da damar masu aikata manyan laifuka don samar da hemp. Dokar Faim ta 2014 ta yi shuru kan batun. AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (nan gaba, "Tsarin zunubi"), kamar yadda Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta kara, ya ba da:

(B) FELONY.-

  • A CIKIN SAUKI-FATIMA kamar yadda aka bayar a magana (ii), duk mutumin da aka samu da laifi game da Abin sarrafawa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Jiha ko ta Tarayya · a gabanin, a gaba, ko bayan ranar aiwatar da wannan subtitle ya zama ba zai iya cancanta ba, a lokacin shekaru I0 da ke bin ranar hukuncin-

(!) shiga cikin shirin da aka kafa a ƙarƙashin wannan sashin ko sashe na 297C; da

(II) don samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin kowane ƙa'idoji ko jagororin da aka bayar a ƙarƙashin sashi na 297D (a).

  • -Clause (i) ba zai shafa wa kowane mutum girma hemp da doka ba tare da lasisi ba, rajista, or ko izini a ƙarƙashin shirin matukin jirgi wanda aka ba da izini ta sashi 7606 na Noma Dokar ta2014 (7 USC 5940) kafin ranar aiwatar da wannan rubutun.

7 USC § l 639p (e) (3) (B) (an kara jaddadawa). Amsoshin "ranar aiwatar da wannan taken" shine zuwa taken Sub na AMA, kamar yadda aka kara da sashi na 10113 na2018 Fann Bill. Saboda haka, "ranar shigar da wannan taken" ita ce ranar da za a fara aiki da Dokar Farm na 2018 ta Disamba 20, 2018.

A cikin bayanin shirin Felony, Rahoton taron ya lura cewa:

Duk mutumin da aka samu da laifi game da abin da ake sarrafawa, to ya cancanci ya shiga ƙarƙashin tsarin S [S] ko kuma haƙarƙarin [T] na shekara-shekara bayan ranar da aka yanke hukuncin. Koyaya, wannan haramcin bazai amfani ba ga masu samarwa waɗanda suka kasance cikin yin mu'amala da shirin inshorar lafiya ta S S heate a turance kamar yadda dokar Aikin Gona ta shekarar 2014 ta bayar, kafin aiwatar da wannan taken. Bayanin laifukan da suka biyo baya bayan ranar da aka fara aiwatar da wannan rubutun zai haifar da I 0 shekara

29 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, a * 9 (kin amincewa da kudirin Amurka na yin kwaskwarima tare da baiwa masu gabatar da kara damar yin watsi da su). Babban Sky, BCF Doc. # 32, a 28 (musun masu gabatar da kara na umarnin fara aiki tare da lura da cewa comt din zai ba da umarnin a shirya wani taron shirya taron da zai jagoranci shari'ar ci gaba).

Page 13

lokacin shiga ba tare da la'akari da ko mai samarwa ya shiga cikin shirin jirgi mai izini ba a cikin 2014.

HR REP. A'a. 115-1072, a 737 (2018).

A takaice, mutumin da aka samu da laifin laifi na Jiha ko Tarayya wanda ya shafi abin sarrafawa - ba tare da la’akari da lokacin da wannan hukuncin ya faru ba - ba shi da izinin samar da hemp a ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA na tsawon shekaru i0 bayan ranar da aka yanke hukuncin. Banbanci wanzu a cikin sashe na (ii) na Felony tanadi wanda ya shafi mutumin da ya samar da hemp a cikin doka ta 2014 Farm Bill kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, da wanda aka yanke masa hukunci mai laifi wanda ya shafi abin sarrafawa kafin wannan ranar. Jihohi da kabilun Indiya yanzu suna da damar] Ikon bincike don gano ko mutumin da ke son samar da hemp a wannan abincin ko kuma yankin ƙabila yana da hukuncin laifi na tarayya ko na jihohi da ke da alaƙa da abubuwan da ke sarrafawa wanda hakan zai sa mutumin ba shi da ikon haifar da hemp.

  • SAURAN MATA

Akwai ƙarin ƙarin mahimman fannoni biyu na wannan batun waɗanda ya kamata a jaddada.

Da farko, Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma tilasta · dokokin da suka shafi samar da hemp da suka fi karfin dokar Tarayya. Dubi AMA

  • 297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) (”Babu wani abu a cikin wannan karamin rakodin ko ya takaita duk wata dokar wata jiha ko kabilar Indiya wacce… (i) ke tsara fitar hemp; da (ii) ) ya fi ƙarfin wannan taken. ”). Misali, Jiha na iya ci gaba da hana haɓaka ko narkar da hemp a waccan jihar.30 Kamar yadda aka tattauna a sama, duk da haka, yayin da wata orabila ko wata kabilar Indiya zata iya haramta fitar da hemp, bazai hana haramcin shigo da hemp da yake da ita ba an samar da su daidai da dokar Tarayya.

Na biyu, Dokar Faim ta 2018 ba ta da tasiri ko canza ikon Sakataren Kiwan lafiya da Ayyukan Jama'a ("Sakatare HHS") ko Kwamishinan Abinci da Magunguna ("FDA · · Commissioner") a karkashin Abinci na Tarayya, Magunguna, da Dokar kwaskwarima (21 USC § 301 et seq.) Da kuma sashe na 351 na Dokar Kula da Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a (42 USC § 262). Dubi AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Duk da yake AMA§ 297D (b) ya ba da cewa Sakataren Aikin Noma zai sami '' iko kaɗai '' don fitar da ƙa'idodin Tarayya da jagororin da suka danganci samar da hemp; wannan ikon yana ƙarƙashin ikon Sakatare HHS da Kwamishinan FDA don ayyana ƙa'idodin Tarayya da jagororin ƙarƙashin waɗannan dokokin FDA. 7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Wasu jihohi suna ci gaba da hana haɓakar hemp. Dubi Taron kasa na Majalisun dokoki na jihohi, "Dokar tajin gwajin da aka samu ta jihar Indu," samuwa a http:// www.11cs l. org /bincike h/ agriculdaure-da kuma-rural-fitarwa / jihar-· indus trial-hemp-statutes.aspx # stci (sabuntawar Feb. I, 2019).

  1. KAMMALAWA

Na bincika tanadi na hemp wanda aka sanya a matsayin patt na lissafin Fann 2018 kuma na kai ga ƙarshe ƙarshe:

  1. Har zuwa lokacin da aka kafa dokar Faty na 2018 a ranar 20 ga Disamba, 2018, an cire hemp daga jadawalin I na CSA kuma ba shi da wata kulawa
  2. Bayan USDA ta buga ƙa'idoji na aiwatar da tanadin samar da hemp na 2018 Fatm Bill wanda ke kunshe a cikin taken G na AMA, Jihohi da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya haramta transl1 na kututturewa ba ko jigilar hemp bisa doka ba cikin tsarin Jiha ko alabila ko a karkashin lasisi da aka bayar a cikin Depattmental i;
  3. Statesasashe da kabilun Indiya ba za su iya hana ma'amalar wucewa ko jigilar hemp da doka ta samar ba har zuwa shekarar 2014 Farm
  4. Mutumin da ke da hukuncin laifi ko na Jiha ko Tarayya da ke da alaƙa da abin da ke sarrafawa yana ƙarƙashin ƙuntatawa na rashin cancantar shekaru 10 akan samar da hemp ƙarƙashin taken G na AMA. Ban da haka ya shafi mutumin da ya yi haɓaka ta doka a karkashin Dokar Farm ta 2014 kafin 20 ga Disamba, 2018, wanda kuma hukuncinsa ya faru tun kafin wannan ranar.

Dokar Farm ta 2018 ta ba da ikon jihohi da kabilun Indiya don kafawa da kuma aiwatar da dokokin da ke ba da izinin samar da hemp da suka fi ƙarfin dokar ta Tarayya. Bugu da ƙari, ilie 2018 Farm Bill ba ya tasiri ko canza ikon Sakatariyar HHS ko Kwamishinan FDA don tsara hemp a ƙarƙashin dokokin FDA masu amfani.

Za a gan ku mako mai zuwa tare da ƙarin Labaran Cannabis!

Ka tuna da biyan kuɗi. @ https://www.youtube.com/cannabislegalizationnews

Thomas Howard

Thomas Howard

Lauyan Cannabis

Thomas Howard ya kasance yana cikin kasuwancin shekaru kuma yana iya taimakawa naku don kewaya zuwa ƙarin ruwa mai fa'ida.

Sabunta masana'antu na Cannabis tare da Girma In

Sabunta masana'antu na Cannabis tare da Girma In

Sabunta Masana'antar Cannabis tare da Girma A Brad Spirrison na Girma A haɗe da mu don tattauna abubuwan da ake ciki na masana'antar cannabis. Wani dan jarida kuma mai haɓaka Grown In, Brad Spirrison yayi mana magana game da siyasar Chicago da makomar cannabis a Illinois. Saurari shi akan PodCast ko ...

Labaran Cannabis na Illinois tare da Chillkina da CannaKweens

Labaran Cannabis na Illinois tare da Chillkina da CannaKweens

Labaran Cannabis na Illinois tare da Chilllorida Illinois Labaran cannabis suna da irinsa a yanzu. Dayawa suna jira su ji daga Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona kan ko za a karba ko a ki karbar aikace-aikacen su na lasisi ko a hana su. Justine Warnick da Cole Preston daga ...

Pennsylvania Adult-Yi Amfani da Kayan Cannabis

Pennsylvania Adult-Yi Amfani da Kayan Cannabis

Pennsylvania Adult-Use Cannabis Dokokin Pennsylvania manya-amfani da cannabis dokokin suna kan kowane mai amfani da maganin cannabis na Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania na iya ganin cannabis (nishaɗar amfani da tsofaffi) suna zuwa jihar su idan SB 350 suka wuce. Sanata Leach na Pennsylvania ya hada kai da mu ...

Yadda Ake Bude Waya A Oklahoma

Yadda Ake Bude Waya A Oklahoma

Yadda Ake Bude Wani Disamba a Oklahoma Don buɗe wurin buɗe wuta a Oklahoma farashin farashi ya yi ƙasa sosai da na sauran jihohi na shari'a. Don ku bude wani yanki a Oklahoma, ya zama dole ku sami bayanan da suka dace kuma kuyi la'akari da wasu mahimman abubuwa ...

Tsarin R3 & Grant a cikin Illinois

Tsarin R3 & Grant a cikin Illinois

Tsarin R3 da Grant a Illinois Shirin R3 yana ba da Grant a cikin Illinois an samar da shi azaman hanyar da za a gyara wasu kurakurai na Yakin akan Magunguna. Kwanan nan aka ba da sanarwar cewa, ya zuwa ranar 19 ga Mayu, 2020, Illinois ta raba $ 31.5 miliyan kudin shiga haraji don R3 ...

Dalilin da yasa Kamfanin Kasuwancin Cannabis ɗinku Yana Bukatar Mai Ba da Shawara Kan Gaba

Dalilin da yasa Kamfanin Kasuwancin Cannabis ɗinku Yana Bukatar Mai Ba da Shawara Kan Gaba

Kasuwancin cannabis na shari'a shine babban tsari na dokoki da ƙa'idodi. Wadannan dokokin za'a iya yin amfani dasu a wasu lokuta har wasu jihohi, kamar Pennsylvania da Florida, suna fuskantar matsala wajen aiwatar da tsarin lasisin nasu. Wataƙila ba abin mamaki bane cewa wasu daga ...

Motocin Cannabis

Motocin Cannabis

Motocin Cannabis Canjin motocin haya Cannabis ana buƙatar jigilar kuɗi, cannabis, da sauran abubuwa masu mahimmanci zuwa shagunan ajiya, kantuna, da wuraren shakatawa masu zaman kansu. Ma'aikatar jigilar Cannabis NorCal Vans ta kasance tare da mu tare da mai ba da bako Dustin Robinson don tattauna mafi kyawun ...

Lauyan Cannabis na Pennsylvania

Lauyan Cannabis na Pennsylvania

Lauyan Cannabis na Pennsylvania Cannabis Lauyan Cannabis, Patrick K. Nightingale, ya haɗu don tattauna ci gaban cannabis a Pennsylvania. Wani bincike da aka gudanar ya gano cewa kashi 62% na masu jefa kuri'a a Pennsylvania zasu jefa kuri'a don halatta cannabis. Ko yaya, ci gaba a cikin jihar ya kasance ...

Abin da Cancantar Canviis na iya yi kama a cikin Illinois

Abin da Cancantar Canviis na iya yi kama a cikin Illinois

Lasisi na Cannabis na Isar da Cannabis na iya yin kama da abin da sauran jihohin suka yi tare da isar da cannabis. Kamar yadda muka ruwaito makwanni kadan da suka gabata, Hukumar Kula da Cannabis ta Massachusetts ta zabe shi don ci gaba tare da lasisin bayar da izini da kuma karɓar bayarwa na ...

Lauyan Canzoni na Arizona

Lauyan Canzoni na Arizona

Lauyan Arizona Cannabis Lauyan Arizona cannabis, Thomas Dean, ya shiga don tattauna ayyukan cannabis Arizona yana cikin ayyukan don 2020. 'Smart da Arizona na lafiya' suna tsaye a matsayin babban shirin amma ya haɗa da haƙƙin ku na girma a gida, ko adireshin ...

Tsarin Kasuwanci na Cannabis

Tsarin Kasuwanci na Cannabis

Tsarin Kasuwancin Cannabis Ana buƙatar shirin kasuwanci na cannabis ga kowane kasuwancin da ke neman farawa a cikin masana'antar cannabis. Tsarin kasuwanci shine tsarin siyayyar kasuwancin cannabis kuma zai iya yin gaske ko lalata aikace-aikacen ku. Rubuta shirin kasuwanci na iya zama ...

Shin Cannabis Doka ce a Afirka ta Kudu?

Shin Cannabis Doka ce a Afirka ta Kudu?

Shin Cannabis Doka ce a Afirka ta Kudu? Shin cannabis halal ne a Afirka ta Kudu? Da kyau, yana da rikitarwa. A wani lokaci Afirka ta Kudu ita ce ta hudu a duniya wajen samar da cannabis a duniya amma idan kun cinye cannabis a Afirka ta Kudu waje da wurin zamanku na sirri, zaku iya ...

Yadda Ake Gudun Da Cannabis Co-Op

Yadda Ake Gudun Da Cannabis Co-Op

Yadda za a gudanar da Co-op Cannabis "Yadda za a gudanar da hadin gwiwar cannabis?" babban tambaya ne don tambayar kanka idan kuna sha'awar wani tsari mai daidaituwa na gudanar da kasuwancin kasuwancin cannabis. Hadin gwiwar Cannabis da masu tattara kuɗi suna samun shahara - kuma saboda kyakkyawan dalili! Suna ...

Kuna buƙatar Attorney Attorney?

Lauyoyin kasuwancinmu na cannabis suma masu kasuwanci ne. Za su iya taimaka maka ka tsara kasuwancinka ko kuma ka iya kiyaye shi daga ƙa'idodin da ba su da nauyi sosai.

KAR KA YI KANKA DAGA EMAIL




316 SW Washington Street, Suite 1A
Peoria, Illinois 61602

Waya: (309) 740-4033 || email: tom@collateralbase.com


150 S. Wacker Drive, Suite 2400,
Chicago IL, 60606 Amurka

Phone: 312-741-1009 || email: tom@collateralbase.com


316 SW Washington Street, Suite 1A
Peoria, Illinois 61602

Waya: (309) 740-4033 || email: tom@collateralbase.com


150 S. Wacker Drive, Suite 2400,
Chicago IL, 60606 Amurka

Phone: 312-741-1009 || email: tom@collateralbase.com

Lauyan masana'antar cannabis

316 SW Washington St, Peoria,
IL 61602, Amurka
Kira Mu (309) 740-4033 || e-Mail Us tom@collateralbase.com
Labarin Cannabis & Labaran Kafa doka

Labarin Cannabis & Labaran Kafa doka

Biyan kuɗi kuma sami sabon abu akan masana'antar cannabis. Zai kasance kusan imel 2 na wata ɗaya duka!

An yi nasarar shigar da ku!

Wannan raba